200 BUSINESS IDEAS

200 BUSINESS IDEAS

The Money Engineer

“Man is only limited by weakness of attention and poverty of imagination.  The great secret is a controlled and well sustained attention, firmly and repeatedly focused on the objectives to be accomplished.” – Neville Godard.

Someone asked me about potential business opportunities in Uganda. This question led to search all corners of the internet to get an answer. Eventually I landed on a comprehensive report which was done by the Uganda Investment Authority. The detailed report is available on their website (https://www.ugandainvest.go.ug/wp-content/uploads/2016/02/Compendium-of-Investment-and-Business-Opportunities-Vol-2.pdf).

I was amazed at the abundance of the opportunities available in our country. We simply lack awareness and resourcefulness to exploit all these opportunities.The following is a collection of some of the business ideas one can undertake within Uganda.

  1. SETTING UP A CHICKEN HATCHERY

This business idea is aimed at setting up a Chicken Hatchery. It is premised on hatching eggs for layers and broilers for both local and hybrid birds. The business will be hatching 38,000 chicks per month, which translates into 456,000 chicks per year. Selected good eggs are collected and inserted into an incubator for 18 days. They are then transferred into a Hatchery for 3 days to hatch. The supply of one day chicks has a high demand both in rural and urban areas throughout the year. Market for the one day chicks from good breeders can be produced anywhere in the country to reduce transportation and sold within the country and to the neighboring countries

  1. BEE KEEPING (APICULTURE)

This business idea is for keeping bees for production of honey and bee wax. The Revenue potential is estimated at US$ 10,400 per year with the project cost of US$ 7,345 and a profit margin of 73%. The expected payback period is 7 month. Bee hives are opened after the bees have been smoked out using a smoke pump, honeycombs are pressed by hand. Honey is separated from the wax using pressing machines to produce better quality honey. Honey from a honeycomb is extracted, warmed, strained and bottled. There is high demand for honey for home consumption, pharmaceutical use in making drugs and in most instances it has replaced the sugar intake among people with health complications. Some beekeepers salvage the combs to extract wax for making candles or at times it is mixed with maize flour to make ice-cream cones. In addition, wax is demanded by cobblers, makers of household textiles and garments.

  1. PIGGERY

This business idea is for rearing pigs aimed at production and sale of 360 pigs annually. The revenue potential is estimated at US $ 86,850 per year with a profit margin of 75%. The total capital investment for the project is US $ 11,900 and the payback period is almost 5 months. The business risk involved in this idea is the high rate of infection, which spreads quickly among the animals. However, this can be mitigated by increasing the animal’s resistance e.g. by improving the quality of feeds. The items needed include shelter, feeds, piglets, water, feeding troughs and animal drugs. The pig rearing process involves feeding them very well, cleaning the pen, monitoring the health of the animals and have them grow to the weight of 80Kgs and above to be ready for sell. Pigs also reproduce so you don’t have to buy more piglets. The structure of the pig market is wide throughout the year in butcheries as pork is popular among the public. There are several pork joints in the city and upcountry making demand for pork high.

  1. MAKING CORNFLAKES

Cornflakes are one of the most consumed breakfast cereals on account of their taste and nutritional value. They have a high market potential as they are consumed by adults, youth and children. This business idea aims at the production of 700 kilograms of cornflakes a day. The revenue potential is estimated at $ 436,800, annually, at a sales margin of 75% with an initial capital investment cost of $ 30,543. The payback period is about 7 months. Maize grains are cleaned using air classifiers and after separated (large and small grains) using a mesh screen separator. The grains are then polished and milled to remove germs and bran. The milled grains are cooked in a rotary steam cooker where flavor syrups of sugar, malt, salt, and water are added. The grain pieces are then washed and small grains are separated. The grains are then carried to an agitator pump or lump breaker then sent to a steamer where pre-heated air is blown into the grains so as to reduce the moisture content to the desired level of about 20%. The dried material is then kept in a de-moisturizing tank for a few hours for moisture to equally be distributed. The grits (cooked material) are then washed again and passed through a heavy flaking machine where they are turned into flakes by pressing. The flakes are immediately transferred to a rotary oven for roasting. After roasting, the flakes are inspected, screened and graded to remove standard flakes. The flakes are then packed in water resistant polythene containers of waxed paper.

  1. ESTABLISHING A GRAIN GROCERY

Grains are agricultural products that have a very high demand in the country. They usually include: Simsim, ground nuts, soy beans, maize, popcorns, and cow peas. The project idea is based on adding value by packaging good quality grains and selling them at relatively low prices. The project expects to package 72,000 kgs of assorted grains per annum. Initial investment costs are estimated at US$20,370 generating revenue of US$92,695 at a net profit margin of 43% and payback period of approximately 2 years. The market for grains readily exists and their demand continues to grow mainly across borders to such places as Southern Sudan.

  1. MAKING INSTANT COFFEE POWDER

Coffee is a household crop in Uganda and a major foreign exchange earner. It is widely produced and many Ugandans take it as a beverage, and world over it is a cherished drink. The demand for coffee as a beverage is on the rise locally and any venture in its production and distribution is viable as it involves adding value to the coffee beans. This project involves milling coffee beans into desired powder and sold over the counter to a waiting customer. The project requires an estimated fixed capital of US$ 5,300, operating costs of US$ 64,841 generating revenue of US$ 116,064 in the first year of operation. The payback period is 5 months. The process is simple. Coffee beans are roasted first using a coffee roaster and then blended. The demand for instant coffee is on the rise especially among affluent people in society who are urban based and from the middle class. Its potential is promising. The revival of coffee shops of the seventies would go a long way to tap the market and popularize the product.

  1. MAKING BANANA WAFERS

Banana Wafers are a popular snack eaten world over. They are made by cutting bananas into thin slices. This project uses the banana variety commonly known as Matooke in Uganda and is readily available. Wafers can simply be eaten directly or as desserts and puddings. It is a cross cutting venture as it can be undertaken in both rural and urban settings. The project initial cost is US$ 1,318 producing 46,800kgs of banana wafers per year giving an estimated revenue of US$ 35,100 annually with a profit margin of 475 and a payback period of about 4 months. The Bananas can be peeled manually or using a peeling machine. They are then sliced and rapidly dehydrated to reduce the moisture content and then deep fried in cooking oil. Excess oil is extracted and the fried banana wafers are seasoned with salt and other spices as may be deemed necessary. The plant capacity is 150kg per 8 hours but there are also equipments with bigger capacity if needed. The technology involved can be locally accessed within Uganda, which makes it affordable. Banana wafers are common among the urban population. With an increased shelf life, the wafers can be supplied to supermarkets, schools, hotels, hospitals, and with aggressive marketing, they can capture a lot of consumer attention even in the international market. They can also be produced in different styles or designs.

  1. ICE CREAM MAKING

Ice cream is a frozen dessert usually made from diary products such as: milk and cream, which are often combined with other ingredients and flavours. Most varieties contain sugar although some are made with other sweeteners. Alternatively, it can be made from milk from soya, rice and goat for those who are lactose intolerant or allergic to diary products and would like to avoid them. The production capacity is 38,376kg per year yielding revenue of US $107,453per annum from an investment with an initial cost of US $26,600. The project net profit margin is 45% with a payback period of 2 years and 5 months. The basic steps involved in the manufacturing of ice cream are: Blending of the mixed ingredients, pasteurization, homogenization, ageing the mixture, freezing, packaging and hardening. Ice-cream represents a congealed dairy product produced by freezing a pasteurized mixture of milk, cream, and milk solids other than fat, sugars, emulsifier and stabilizers. There are two types of ice-cream, soft and hard available on the market. Ice cream is readily marketable as it is consumed widely. What is important is the strategic location of the business.

  1. PUTTING UP AN ANIMAL FEED PLANT

Animal feed plant is a place where their feeds are made. The need for balanced animal feeds forms an essential part of the intensive diary development programme. What is proposed here, is the setting up of an animal feed manufacturing plant using local products like maize, millet and wheat. The business idea aims at the production of 93,600 kgs of animal feeds per year. The revenue potential is estimated at US$ 121,680 annually, while the initial capital investment required is US$7,150. The payback pay period for this project is approximately 6 months with a net profit margin of 50%. The process involves blending of various ingredients by using a disintegrator to reduce to the size of the required mesh size, which is uniformly mixed with vitamins, minerals by a ribbon blender. Molasses are added and then the mix is extruded to get pallets of the finished product, which are packed in gunny bags for marketing. With agricultural modernization and diversification, there is a good future and solid potential for growth. Thus, market for animal feeds is guaranteed except the need for sensitization of the local population on the benefits of using animal feed visa vie natural grass and plants. The market cuts across farmers with different sizes of herds of animals.

  1. DOG BREEDING (GERMAN SHEPHERDS)

Dog breeding is the practice of mating selected specimens with the intent to maintain or produce specific qualities and characteristics. The German shepherd, from Germany was originally bred for herding and guarding sheep. Its origins date back to the 700’s. The German shepherd Dog is also known by the other names of Alsatian and Deutscher Schaferhund. The advent of the two World Wars influenced the history of this dog.

  1. ESTABLISHING A COFFEE CAFFEINE PROCESSING PLANT

Caffeine is a drug that is naturally produced in the leaves and seeds of many plants. Coffee is quite popular as a leisure drink, and the ingredients of coffee include: caffeine, aroma, protein, tannic acid and fat etc. The references show a small amount of caffeine can stimulate the brain and enhance memory while if caffeine is drunk too much, then it may trigger high blood pressure, kidney and coronary artery diseases, which are negative effects.

  1. ESTABLISHING A DAIRY FARM

Dairy farming is a class of agricultural, or animal husbandry enterprise, for long-term production of milk, usually from dairy cows but also from goats and sheep, which may be either processed on-site or transported to a dairy factory for processing and eventual retail sale. It is a lucrative business, which can fetch big profits due to the increasing and ready market for dairy products.

  1. FRUIT JUICE CANNING

Fruit Juice Canning is a method of preserving fruit juice sealed in an airtight container, which prevents microorganisms from entering and proliferating inside. The products may include: Canned fruit cocktail consisting of a mixture of fruits, such as; mangoes, tangerine, lemons, apples, and passion fruits. There is an increasing demand for canned fruits as they can be sold in both local and foreign markets.The canning process involves placing fruit juice in jars or similar containers and heating them to a temperature that destroys micro-organisms that cause food to spoil. During this heating process air is eliminated from the jar and as it cools a vacuum seal is formed. This seal prevents air from getting back into the product bringing with it contaminating micro-organisms. Capital Investment Requirements and Equipment: This project may be operated on both small and large scale depending on the size and nature of the market. The fixed capital investment required to start it is approximately 27,170 USD as shown in the table below:

  1. MAKING VERMI-COMPOST

The importance of Vermi-compost, which is eco-friendly, has increased in recent years, as it is chemical free manure. The increase in the demand for fertilizers has also inadvertently led to the increase in demand for vermi-compost. The business risk is that some worms can easily die and some organic waste can be harmful to the soil texture, however, this can mitigated by applying Vermi-composting technology. It costs US$ 3,680 with estimated revenue of US$ 11,482, with net profit margin of 8%. The payback period is 3 years. The organic waste is pasteurized and kept in the composing tanks with earthworms dumped into it. The earthworms multiply in due course and the soil converts into compost, referred to as Vermi compost. Soil is to be excavated in the four catcher sheds up to a depth of about one foot for preparing the beds, which contain organic waste, Vermi castings and cow dung. The length and width of the beds is 100 ft. and 5 ft. respectively. Some paddy straw should be spread evenly at the bottom of the excavations. Charging of waste and cow dung slurry should be continued till the heap of material is one foot above the ground level. The profile project has a minimum capacity of producing 300kg per month of Vermi-compost.

  1. VERMI-CULTURE

Vermiculture:  “The raising and production of earthworms and worm castings” In recent years, thanks to the growing awareness, the benefits of organic compost have been understood, and today, more and more farmers want organic compost as it enhances the soil fertility and regenerates microorganisms in the soil. This idea is associated with risks of harmful organic waste to the soil, however, this can be mitigated by applying Vermi-culturing technology. Project cost is US$ 7,640, revenue is estimated at US$29,063 from production of 360 kgs of worms, which are used as baits in the fishing sector, cocoons and residues annually. The net profit margin is estimated at 3% with a payback period of 3 years. Much similar to the process of making vermi-compost, this involves breeding of earthworms in a mixture of cow dung and agricultural wastes to make organic compost manure. MAKING ICE CANDYThe business idea is for the production and marketing of ice candies. Ice Candy is made out of frozen juice or fruits in little ice bags where one would have to nibble at the end of the plastic to sip or bite the ice candy. The business risk involved is healthy and safety related risks surrounding the manufacturing and processing. However, this is can be solved by employing food scientists.The total investment is estimated at US$ 3,230 with production capacity of 15,000 ice candies per day. The total revenue is estimated at US$ 936,000 per year. The net profit margin is 26% for this business idea.To make an ice candy, one needs to have ice candy bags, funnel and fresh fruits or juices, depending on the Ice Candy flavor you wish to make. The required quantity of water is taken into the container. Colours, fresh fruits and juices are mixed thoroughly and filled in candy blocks. Bamboo sticks are inserted into candy holes and placed in a freezer for solidification. After cooling, they are removed and placed in a cold chamber.

  1. SERICULTURE

This business idea is for sericulture. Sericulture is the rearing of silkworms for silk. It is a major income generating activity based on cocoons cultivation in rural areas. However, there is high risk of death of some silkworms, which can be managed by employing high disease resistant and high yielding strain of mulberry silk worms. The business idea aims at production of 31,200 yarns of silk annually. The revenue potential is estimated at US $ 93,600 annually. The total capital investment cost for the project is US $14,718. The net profit is at 36% in a payback period of 1 year and 6 months. The envisaged project is production of 31,200 yarns of silk annually. The technology needed is as in the table for fixed capital investment requirements below. The raw materials include silk worms and mulberry leaves. Silk worms are reared in trays in rooms with controlled and humid temperatures and regularly fed on mulberry leaves. At a certain stage the silkworms convert themselves into cocoons. These cocoons are made from a single filament of material secreted by the pupa and wrapped around itself for protection. These filaments upon hardening constitute silk. Reeling is then done by first cooking them in water to remove the gum, which holds it together, and then unwinding the filaments. Prior to weaving, the raw silk is boiled in water to remove the remaining gum, dyed and bleached, and then woven into the garment usually on a handloom.

  1. MAKING POWDER MILK

This business idea is for the production and marketing of powder milk. The business idea is premised on the production of 52,000 kg of powder milk per month, which translates into 624,000 kg per year. The revenue potential is estimated at US$ 208,000 per month, which translates into US$ 2,496,000 per year. The project cost is US$ 82,373 and the payback period of this project is 2 months. Milk bubbles are sprayed in hot air for 3-30 seconds. The water particles from the milk get evaporated and remain as powder. As this happens in fractions of time, the healthy particles of milk are protected. Milk products are consumed countrywide. There is a ready market for dairy products in Uganda.

  1. MAKING DECORTICATED CASHEWNUT

This business idea is for production and marketing of edible cashew nuts, the business idea is premised on production of 5,200 kgs of cashew nuts per month, which translates into 62,400 per year. The revenue potential is estimated at US$ 6,500 per month, translating into 78,000 per year.The project cost is US $ 27,254 with the net profit of 28% and payback period of 3 years and 5 months.

  1. BUSINESS IDEA FOR MAKING COCONUT CREAM

This business idea is for production and marketing of coconut cream. The business idea is based on production of 74,984 kgs per month, which translates into 899,809 kg per annum. The revenue potential is estimated at US$ 393,666 per month translating into US$4,723,992 per year with a sales margin of 25.4%. Total investment requirement is US$27,270 for the first year of project operation.  The coconut milk obtained is filtered by passing through a vibratory screen. Food additives such as emulsifiers and stabilizers are to be added to the milk to obtain a stable consistency and texture. For this purpose, permitted emulsifiers and stabilizers are mixed with hot water separately and mixed thoroughly. This is added to the coconut milk and then subjected to emulsification using a mechanical impeller emulsifier. The cans are then cooled in running water.

  1. CREAM SEPARATION PLANT

Cream is a fat concentrate found in milk used in the manufacturing of butter and in making bakery products. Cream separation can turn out to be a very lucrative business.The plant can be set up in rural areas as long as utilities like electricity are available. The business idea aims at production of 150 liters of cream per day, which translates into 46,800 liters annually. The Profit is estimated at $ 16,080 annually with a net profit 37% and the payback period is expected to be 3 years 7 months the total capital investment for the project is $ 17,400.The equipments used include a cream separator, milk and cream tanks. The process of separation of cream from, milk is done by a cream separator. In the process of cream separation, the fat-rich portion is separated from the milk by a centrifugal action and collected separately through different outlets. The milk is put into the cream separator and the cream is automatically separated.The cream is used in topping cakes, pastries and soups etc. Therefore, this product has good demand both in urban and rural areas. Supply for bakeries and confectioneries, is recommended for the product to capture a portion of the market.

  1. BAKING BISCUITS

This business idea is for the production and marketing of biscuits. Biscuits are confectionary products and they refer to small thin products of varying shapes, tastes that are of soft brittle texture.They are referred to by different names in different countries. The revenue is estimated at US$1,404,000 per year. The payback period is really short i.e. 2 months and net profit for this investment is 92%.The process consists of combining wheat flour, sugar, margarine, milk and water in a dough mixer. The dough is then mixed with baking powder and kept for around three hours. The prepared dough is then passed through biscuit molding, stamping, and cutting machines and finally baked in an oven. The biscuits are then cooled,

  1. BUSINESS IDEA FOR ESSENTIAL OIL PRODUCTION

This project is for extraction of oil from various oil bearing plants and grasses such as: Eucalyptus, cinnamon ginger, lemons neto etc. Essential oil is highly volatile and is essentially carried away by steam without undergoing decomposition. Essential oils are produced for use in medicine and perfume manufacture, and for other industrial purposes.The project requires an estimated fixed capital of US$ 28,700 and operating costs of US$ 288,803 generating TR of US$ 505,440 in the first year of operation.The leaves are stacked in the extractor and the boiler pressure is maintained at 40 pai and distilling may vary from 3hrs to 18 hours depending on the species being distilled. The leaves are subjected to the steam and oil is extracted as it goes up in the steam. Water is separated through fractional distillation. If eucalyptus leaves are used, 80kgs of oil would be expected to be generated from one hectare. Oil yield may vary from plant to plant or from stuff used such as lemons.Essential oil is a vital item in pharmaceutical and perfume manufacture; as well as other industrial uses. The industrial development in the country is a healthy atmosphere for this project as it guarantees the market. There is great potential for export to the highly industrialized world.

  1. NEEM OIL EXTRACTION

Neem oil is a vegetable oil pressed from the fruits and seeds of neem, an evergreen tree which is endemic to the Indian subcontinent and has been introduced to many other areas in the tropics. It is perhaps the most important of the commercially available products of neem for organic farming and medicines. The business idea aims at production of 200 Litres of neem oil per day thus 62,400 liters annually. The revenue potential is estimated at US $ 561,600 annually with a total capital investment of US $ 6928. The project is also estimated to yield a net profit of 10%The oil can be obtained through pressing (crushing) of the seed kernel through cold pressing. It can also be obtained by solvent extraction of neem seed, fruit, oil cake or kernel.Neem has become the favorite of business firms abroad which firms are now buying tonnes of seeds to produce Neem-based bio-pesticides. With the medicinal value attached to Neem trees, neem oil can be used in different cosmetics industries.

  1. UREA-MOLASSES MULTI -NUTRIENT BLOCK

This project is about manufacturing cattle licks containing Urea, Molasses, Vitamins, Minerals and other nutrients that may be included in the recipe. These blocks are quite convenient to package, transport, and store. This is an easy feeding method and it is quite nutritive because the lick combines a variety of nutrients. At the manufacturing level, a lot more can be added as may be desired.Preparation of the ingredients is done before the whole process starts. The mixing is done in a clear sequence -Molasses are put first, then Urea is added, followed by Salt and Minerals, Cement follows and finally Bran is added. The addition of water should follow a ratio of 3-4 liters per 10kgs of cement. The paste formed can then be put into moulds that may be the size of 25x15x10 cm and the molded blocks are put in a well ventilated shade where they may be kept between 24-72 hrs. The mixing may be manual where production does not exceed 150 blocks a day.The Urea-Molasses and cattle licks are very popular with farmers because of their nutritive value. They contain many ingredients that can hardly be found in any one other feed.

  1. MAKING CHILLI SAUCE

Chilli sauce is hot in taste and eaten either as raw or cooked for its hot flavor. Chilli or Pepper is used to make a variety of sauces and chilli pickles. Chilli may be sold locally in Super markets, Whole sale shops, Groceries and Hotels. It can also be exported.

  1. FRUIT SALAD PROCESSING AND VENDING

This business idea is for making and marketing/vending of fruits. It involves selling varieties of fruits like mangoes, pineapples, paw paws, watermelon, apples and sweet bananas which are bought in large quantities, washed, peeled, cut into pieces and packed in disposable containers to make the fruit salads.Their market structure and demand is relatively high especially in urban areas.The business risk involved is healthy and safety related risks surrounding the manufacturing and processing but can be solved by employing food scientists and adhering to a strict safety and hygienic regimeFruit vending involves a door to door delivery of services and has no complicated technology involved. Fruit processing is relatively simple because fruits are bought in large quantities, washed, peeled, cut into pieces, mixed and packed into containers in a desired quantities for sale.There is a high demand in densely populated areas and the Ugandan population is highly sensitized about the use of fruits through radios and other media channels.

  1. REARING LOCAL HENS FOR EGGS

This business idea is for rearing of local hens for production of eggs. A hen is a domestic fowl bred for eggs or meat. This business idea is viable because you can get eggs, meat, hatch more chicks, which can also be sold at your wish. The business risk involved is diseases like coccidiosis; the solution is proper management and control of the business.This business idea aims at production of 30,000 trays of eggs annually and 3,000 off layers per year. The revenue potential is estimated at US $ 135,000 annually. The initial capital investment cost for the project is US $ 995. The first three months demand a lot of investment yet returns are not realized. This idea needs a lot of patience.Chicks are kept in the brooder in which they are vaccinated and well fed on chick mash for 2 months till they grow feathers. They are then shifted to the main shelter in which they are fed for 3 months on growers mash. Cocks are then introduced to help fertilize the eggs. Reduce the noise, feed them on greens, ensure that water is enough and the hens will lay eggs.To survive in the highly competitive market one has to target supply to supermarkets, individual consumers and the export market.

  1. MAKING MAYONAISE CREAM

The business idea is for production and marketing of mayonnaise cream. Mayonnaise is a thick, creamy sauce or dressing that is made of oil, egg yolks, lemon juice or vinegar and seasonings. The total potential revenue is estimated at US$156,000 per year, the production capacity is estimated at 200 containers per day and the total investment cost is estimated at US $9,300. The net profit is 26% while the payback period is 1 month.Mayonnaise is commonly served with sandwiches and with salads. Therefore, the product has high demand. It is supplied to super markets, shops, hotels and restaurants as major outlets.

  1. MAKING MATS

This business idea is for production and marketing of Palm leaves mats. Mats are popular in homes and are widely used among all sections of the society. Thus, mat making is a good investment that can easily be taken up by women. The production capacity per day is estimated at 30 Mats and the revenue is estimated at US$37,440 per year with a net profit of 37%.Mat making involves collecting palm leaves, drying it in preferred colors and finally weaving the palm leaves into different kinds of Mats. They can be made with threads, which are dried and sewed with a needle. Mats are ideal for use in aisles of homes parties and mosques.

  1. ESTABLISHING A BAKERY

Bread and Confectionary products are a lucrative business. These, especially bread, are quite nutritive and easily preserved and the shelf life can be prolonged. These are products commonly stocked almost by all provision stores. Bread is one common product on people’s dining tables to a sizeable proportion of the urban and semi-urban communities and therefore, enjoys a ready market.This is a project to produce bread, cakes, buns, mandazi, doughnuts etc. It requires capital investment of US $55,580, yield revenue of 920,400 and net profit margin of 60%.Bread is a household item, therefore it has a ready market throughout the year and the country.

  1. JUICE EXTRACTION – APPLES

This profile envisages the establishment of a plant for the production of apple juice with a capacity of 2,000 liters per day. Apple juice is the unfermented juice obtained from sound, ripe apples.Apple juice production begins with fruit harvesting, transport and washing facilities, then extraction of juice and packaging. However, all fruit must be sound and free from gross damage or contamination. The fruit should be picked at the proper stage of maturity for the preparation of juice. The flavour, sugar content and pectin levels of the juice will vary with the maturity of the fruit.

  1. CHEESE MAKING

Cheese is a product made from the curd obtained from whole or skimmed milk, with or without added cream, by coagulating the casein and further treatment, of the separated curd by ripening ferments, special molds or seasoning.Cheese is made by curdling the milk. The homogeneous fluid changes into a mixture of solid particles and a pale yellow liquid. These are separated and the solid elements make up the curd, which is pressed into moulds, after which the cheese goes into a brine bath for several days. Subsequently, it is stored and thus gradually matures into the delicious product we can buy in the shops.

  1. BANANA FABRIC POLYMER

A cost- effective substitute for glass fiber, banana fiber polymer composite can be a very good fiber-reinforced with plastic to make a variety of products. Products such as trays, mirror-casings, voltage stabilizer covers and electrical panels are now made from this material. The envisaged project is therefore to set up a plant for making banana fabric polymer. The project cost is US$4,325 with a capacity of 10,000kg per annum yielding an estimated revenue of US$ 62,000 per year with a payback period of 2 years and 1 month.The process starts with preparing moulds of metal, wood or plaster of Paris, followed by mixing of resin with dye in requisite proportion, shaping the banana fabric by placing it on the mould and reinforcing the polymer over banana fabric. Later these are cured, de-moulded and cut. Finally these are trimmed and polished for market. The proposed plant would have a minimum capacity of 10 tonnes per annum on the basis of 312 working days.The cost effective nature of this product has made it a perfect substitute for glass fiber. Today, the demand for banana fabric polymer is gaining ground as a variety of products can be made from this, with a potential market growth. Therefore most of the manufacturing industries should be targeted so as to tap forward and backward linkages as the fiber is normally used in the manufacture of other products.

  1. MAKING YOGHURT

This profile envisages the establishment of a plant that produces Yoghurt generically known as cultured milk as they all derive from the action of bacteria on all or part of the Lactose to produce Lactic acid, carbon dioxide acetic acid, diacetyl, acetaldehyde and several other components that give the products the characteristic of fresh taste and smell.Yoghurt is made through the process of fermenting milk by the addition of bacteria, stabilizers, flavours and colour. The milk may be whole full fat, semi skimmed or low fat skimmed depending on the type of yoghurt you intend to make. It is normal in commercial yoghurt production to homogenise the milk prior to its fermentation.

  1. MAKING FERTILIZERS FROM DRY BONES

Uganda’s economy is dominated by the agricultural sector and any investment such as production of agricultural fertilizers can be a very viable investment both in the short run and long run period of the investment. This project if implemented can yield total estimated revenue of US$123,552 with a payback period of 1 year 4months.The production process involves digging of a 5-ft deep pit with a radius of 1-metre .Charcoal or wood is put in the pit and on top of it dry bones are piled. The fire wood is ignited and the bones are burnt until they are spongy and brittle. The burnt bones are then removed and pounded by a simple mortar to a fine material, which contains calcium and phosphate. It does not matter even if burnt wood ash is mixed with the burnt bones. The fertilizer is then weighed and packed.

  1. SMOKING FISH

The business idea is for smoking and marketing of fish. This business idea is premised on smoking of 208 batches of fish per month which translates into 2,496 batches of fish per year. The revenue potential is estimated at US $ 5,824per month, which translates into US $69,888per year. The project cost is US $ 4,178 for the first month of operation.Fresh fish is cleaned and left to dry under sunshine for some time. It is then put on a wire mesh and covered with banana leaves in the oven for smoking. After some time, fish is changed over to allow both sides to dry. Fish is then removed from the oven or kiln and left to cool before being packed for dispatch.Smoked fish is a delicacy to all tribes in Uganda; it is consumed in almost all regions of the country. Smoked fish can be supplied to colleges and schools, armed forces, hospitals and homes. There is also a ready market in Congo, Zambia, Zimbabwe and Sudan.

  1. MAKING CURRY POWDER

This business idea is for making curry powder. Curry powder is a mixture of spices of widely varying composition. It adds taste to food and stimulates secretion of gastric juices.Curry powder is an item required in every household and thus has a good market potential both in urban and rural areas. Supply to supermarket chains, grocery/retail shops, restaurants and hotels are recommended for one to enter the market.The business idea aims at production of 2,600 kgs of curry powder per month. The revenue potential is estimated at $ 218,400 per year with a net profit of 12% and payback period of 4 months. The total capital investment for the project is US $9,270.The production process involves toasting the spices, mixing the various spices, grinding the spices and packaging.The idea is a rural micro enterprise activity and has good demand in domestic as well as international markets. Areas of concentration would include restaurants, hotels, retail/grocery stores, tourist centers, parking yards, etc.

  1. PROCESSING SUGAR

Sugar is a very vital commodity in every household and its demand has increased both domestically and internationally with the local demand already exceeding supply.The project idea is based on production of sugar using the cheapest technology with an estimated production output of 312,000kgms annually with fixed capital of US$38,100 and operating costs of US$138,552 employed to generate a total revenue of US$234,000 with a net profit margin of 41% and a payback period of 1 year 6 months.The harvested cane material is collected and crushed, the juice is collected and filtered and the liquid treated with lime to remove impurities. This is then neutralized with sulfur dioxide and then boiled .The sediment settles to the bottom and can be dredged out while scum rises to the surface and this is skimmed off. The heat is removed and the liquid crystallizes usually while being stirred to produce sugar crystals.The production capacity greatly depends on the desired objectives of the entrepreneur, but the technology is simple mostly involving crushing, filtering, boiling and cooling.The market for sugar is already available as most of the sugar consumed is still being imported & there is still a wide market in Southern Sudan.

  1. MAKING FISH PICKLES

This Business Idea is for manufacturing and marketing of fish pickles. This is a ready-to-eat product in form of sauce made out of fish. With the increasing demand for non-vegetarian pickles, making preserved ready-to-eat fish would be a lucrative activity. This business idea is premised on production of 2,600kgs per month, which translates into 31,200 kgs per year. The revenue potential is estimated at US$10,400 per month translating into US$124,800 per year and total Investment requirement of US$1,225 for the first year of project operation.After cleaning, fish is placed in a salt solution or brine to increase the shelf life. Later, the fish is fried, mixed with spice powders, salt, vinegar, and oil and finally packed for the market.The marketability of fish pickles would mostly depend on the quality of the product and the Price. Points of supply would be Supermarkets, Hostels, Fast Food Centres, Canteens, Private and Government establishments like railway stations, the military, etc. Therefore, fish pickles may have a wider market and high demand if the plant is set up.

  1. DRYING FRUITS BY OSMO-AIR DEHYDRATION

There is a wide variety of fruits in Uganda. The problem is that fruits like mangoes, pineapples, jackfruit, etc., are very perishable. To retain the freshness, colour, flavor and texture of fruits, the fruits are Osmo-air dried. Osmo-air dried fruits are widely used in ready-to-eat foods, ice creams, fruit salad, cakes and bakery. This activity can be set up in rural areas to benefit the rural people. The plant has a capacity of 31,200kgs per year allowing revenue estimates of US$31,200 net profit of 21% per year having invested US$ 4,331, which is estimated to be recovered with 1 year and 4 months.Fruits are selected, cleaned, washed, peeled, cured and sliced. The prepared fruits are then soaked in a sugar solution to remove water by osmotic pressure. The slices of fruits are then drained and dried in hot air. The fruits are then packed up in flexible pouches. The plant can have a minimum output of 100kg daily with output to be increased as demand does increase.Osmo-air dried fruits are similar to fresh fruits so they are easy to market. Supply to ice cream makers, bakeries, restaurants, fast food places, etc. Supply to the military for the fruits to be used as military rations is also necessary for the fruits to capture market.

  1. DEHULLING OF SESAME SEEDS

Sesame is commonly called simsim and it is predominantly grown in the North, West Nile, Teso, and Kapchorwa sub regions of Uganda. Sesame is used to produce oil used for cooking.This project is for setting up a plant to de-hull the sesame seeds. Some of the varieties are black with a black coating that gives it a bitter taste and therefore, the seeds must be rid of that covering to render them edible. This black covering has high oxalates content and by dehulling sesame you turn it white coloured, which can be used in various preparation such as sweets, groundnut butter, sweets, powders, chutneys etc. The project requires an estimated fixed capital of US$ 3,900 operating costs of US$ 142,793 generating total revenue of US$202,800 in the first year of operation.The dark seeds are cleaned by subjecting them to an alkali treatment for a few minutes. The seeds are then washed with cold water to free the product from traces of alkali. The processed seeds are then dried and are white and rid of bitterness and of good nutritive qualities. The removed outer coat has the bitter oxalic acid and the seed is now bereft of fungal infections.The demand for whiter sesame oil is on the increase on the market. Being plant oil it is healthier as it gives less cholorestal. Sesame oil is used as a cooking medium and in pickles. Restaurants, hotels, fast foods shops, groceries and supermarket chains are the main outlets. Sesame oil has exportable potential especially to the Arab world.

  1. PRODUCING SIMSIM AND GROUND NUT PASTE

Groundnuts paste is made from grounding fried groundnuts into a paste. The paste is used as a sauce stew to accompany food. It is many times mixed with other sauce or mixed directly into food. It makes soup heavy, and tastes nice. It may also be used or pasted on bread and be used instead of butter. This proposal will produce a safe product using stainless steel machinery unlike the present products produced using cast-iron equipment, which end up laced with materials likely to cause cancer to those eating it. About 250 to 350 kgs of groundnuts can be processed daily. An investment capital of US$2,768 would sufficiently start up this project. The project is estimated to generate annual revenue of US$327,600 with a net profit of 28%. The process begins with the cleaning and sorting of the sun- dried shelled groundnuts. Thereafter, the nuts are fried briefly so that they can make a paste and to give a good taste. It is then put into the grinding machine for processing into a paste and packed in plastic containers. The process is quite simple and fast and a substantial amount can be processed in a day with modest equipment within a small space. There is a ready market for the paste and outlets are spread all over because this is a house hold item used by all families throughout the year. It is stocked in markets, provisional shops and supermarkets etc.

  1. ESTABLISHING A SOYA FLOUR PROCESSING PLANT

Soya Bean is emerging as an important crop in Pallisa, Soroti, and Kumi districts of Uganda. Apart from being a source of edible oil, Soya is rich in Proteins. Defatted or whole Soya is used to make innumerable products like: Soya milk, Soya flour, Soya coffee and Nugget. These products have gained consumer acceptance and a steady growth of market is expected.It is projected that this plant will produce 1 ton (1,000kgs) of Soya flour per day. Whole soya flour is made by cooking pre-soaked beans, drying, dehulling, and powdering. Soya Nuggets and Soya meal, etc. are made from Soya flour by extrusion. The potential markets for soya flour are in the school feeding programme, Social welfare feeding programme, confectionery industries, Baking Industries for Nuggets and Chunks manufacturing as a supplement for wheat flour.

  1. PROCESSING SOYA FLOUR

Soya Bean is emerging as an important crop in Pallisa, Soroti, and Kumi districts of Uganda. Apart from being a source of edible oil, Soya is rich in proteins. Defatted or whole Soya is used to make innumerable products like: Soya milk, Soya flour, Soya coffee and Nugget. These products have gained consumer acceptance and a steady growth of market is expected.This idea is estimated to yield annual revenue of US$ 312,000 with a net profit margin of 36% and a payback period of 4 months. It is projected that this plant will produce 1 ton (1,000kgs) of Soya flour per day. Whole soya flour is made by cooking pre-soaked beans, drying, dehulling, and powdering. Soya Nuggets and Soya meal are made from Soya flour by extrusion. The potential markets for soya flour are in the school feeding programme, Social welfare feeding programme, confectionery industries, Baking Industries for Nuggets and Chunks manufacturing as a supplement for wheat flour.

  1. RICE HULLING PLANT

This business idea is for hulling and selling of rice. It is premised on processing 7,200 Kg per day, which translates into 187,200 Kg per month. The revenue potential is estimated at US$ 198,800 per month translating into US$ 2,277,600 per year. The total investment is estimated cost at USD 10,865. The project is also estimated to yield a net profit margin of 50%.Dried and cleaned paddy is de-husked by aspiration, and the de-husked brown rice is got. The brown rice is placed in a polisher where the polished rice and bran are separated. After sieving the polished rice, the broken rice is separated and the sieved rice is then packed in bags for dispatch. Locally produced rice has potential to be supplied to both the domestic and foreign markets. Although it is said to compete with imported varieties the demand still outstrips the supply especially with the opening up of the Southern Sudan market. There is also a market to supply to supermarket chains, retailers, wholesalers and the Armed Forces.

  1. GROWING WATER MELONS

This business idea is aimed at growing and marketing of watermelons. The idea is premised on harvesting 12,000 watermelons per quarter which translates into 48,000 watermelons per year. The revenue potential is estimated at USD 7,200 per quarter, which translates into US$ 28,800 per year. The business has a good market demand throughout the year and can provide employment to the youths and women. The Project cost is about US$ 135, with a net profit margin of 84%. For each plant, dig a hole two feet in diameter and a foot deep, and add at least a shovelful of compost or well-cured manure and a trowel or two of bone meal. Set hardened-off transplants into the ground at the depth they were growing in their pots.Sow seeds an inch deep in hills. Water thoroughly with compost tea. Allow plenty of space between plants. Apply a thick organic mulch to hold in moisture, Remove all covers as soon as flowers appear so that bees and other insects can pollinate the plants, and begin fertilizing with compost tea every three weeks and should be ready to pick about 3 months later.There is a growing market for fruits such as watermelon country wide especially in urban areas. Water melons can be supplied to Fruit vendors, markets, hotels, supermarkets, canteens.

  1. ESTABLISHING AN OIL SEED EXTRACTION PLANT

Seed oil falls under the category of high value products and the demand for it keeps growing .The market size is big as it is used in almost every household. The project idea is designed with an aim of producing 39,000litres of seed cooking oil with estimated annual revenue of US$128,700 in the first year of active operations, a net profit margin of 34% and a payback period of 1 year and 6 months. The production process involves drying and cleaning oil seeds to remove foreign materials like stones, sand and sometimes it is washed to remove dirt. The outer coat is removed through a process called dehulling and then grinded using small motor powered hammer mills. The broken down components are passed through the expeller where they are heated to kill enzymes .The oil collects at the bottom of the expeller and then it is filtered and stored in the storage tank and packaged. The technology used is very simple as it involves drying, cleaning, crushing, heating and filtering.

  1. MAKING POULTRY FEEDS

The poultry industry is one of the fastest growing industries in Uganda. The poultry a product especially feeds have a wide market both in urban and rural areas of the country. The Business Idea was developed basing on the need to add value in the agricultural sector with provision of high quality poultry feeds. An estimated fixed capital of US$23,940, when invested into the project, can yield an estimated annual revenue of US $78,000 from sale of 195,000kgms of poultry feeds, and 17,971US$, from sale of 39,936kgms of maize flour in the first year of production. The payback period is 2 years and the net profit margin is at 31%.There is wide market for poultry feeds both in rural and urban centers as most of people are embarking on poultry farming since it’s a lucrative venture, but there exists large producers of poultry feeds in Uganda and these include: Kagodo Farmers, Ugachick Uganda Ltd and Biyinzika farmers etc. These may be producing at low costs by enjoying the advantages of economies of scale.

  1. ESTABLISHING A CUPCAKE MANUFACTURING PLANT

The demand for cupcakes is very high all over the country especially in urban centers, Schools, Hospitals and Hotels. The estimated initial investment for setting up a medium cupcake enterprise is US$ 4,905. This idea is projected to yield annual revenue of US$ 268,320, with a net profit margin of 32%Cupcakes can be baked directly in a patty, often baked in paper cases.

  1. SETTING UP A POULTRY PROCCESSING PLANT

This project idea is based on the need to add value by processing chicken to reduce the rudimentary form that is dangerous for human consumption. Chicken is widely consumed in many households, hotels, schools and restaurants. The venture requires capital investments of US$ 36,030, which is anticipated to yield annual revenue of US $993,720, with a payback period of 4 months. The processes involve: The birds are put in an automated head remover machine. They are transferred to specialise a conveyer which sends them to automated picking machine that pluck the feathers off the birds. They are then sent to the eviscerating equipment where the birds their insides are cleaned, packed and stored in a chilling machine ready for distribution.

  1. MAKING FRUIT CHEESE

Fruit cheese is a fruit based confectionery containing fruit pulp and cheese, with a high shelf life. Since its taste, and nutritional values are cherished by both the rural and urban population it has a high demand. The investment cost required for setting a fruit cheese making plant is US$ 3295 yielding estimated revenue of US$ 49,920 annually with production capacity of 31, 200kgs per year. This project is expected to yield a net profit of 53% in a payback period of seven months.Fruit cheese can be made from any ripe fruit such as: mango, guava, jackfruit and bananas.The fruit is peeled, cored and pulped. Sugar along with butter, salt, colour is added and cooked into a thick mass. It is then poured on greased trays and spread. The mixture is cooled and cut into suitable sizes, wrapped in polythene films and released to the market.

  1. ESTABLISHING AN ICE CREAM-BALLS MANUFACTURING PLANT

The demand for Ice cream is all round the year and is consumed by all classes of people. The proposed project envisions setting up of an Ice cream balls manufacturing unit with capital investment of US$ 25,250. This business is estimated to yield annual revenue of US$ 336,960 with a net profit of 23% and a payback period of 8 months. The indicative project cost for manufacturing unit of Ice cream balls; with suggested capacity of 2,000 balls per day is US $ 25,250. Ice Cream ball is manufactured using cryogenic techniques. Cryogenics process uses liquid Nitrogen to instantaneously freeze. Special storage freezers are required to guarantee the highest flavor quality.

  1. TURKEY PACKING

There is high demand for turkeys during festive seasons from customers such as Supermarkets, Canteens, Universities, Schools, and Hotels that seek for reliable and consistent suppliers. The business idea for packing turkeys is a very promising venture with a capital investment cost of US$14,500 and yielding estimated revenue amounting to US$ 116,813 annually, with a net profit margin of 42% and a payback period of 1 year and 3 months.The birds are obtained from farmers rearing and healthy turkeys are taken to the slaughter house for slaughtering and dressed and dissected. The turkeys are sorted according to sizes and before they are packed, some are cut into pieces for packaging. Some are packed whole, or half or quarter pieces. While others are packed as specific parts of wings, breasts, bulbs, gizzards etc. It could also be packed as de-boned turkey meat.

  1. PRODUCTION OF FRUIT SQUASH

Fruits are an important source of energy and vitamins, however due to them being highly perishable and only growing in certain seasons call for a need preservation. The most effective way of preserving fruits is by turning them into squash. Consequently there is a market for a venture process to fruits into a state where by they are readily available.The establishment of the project is aimed at producing a capacity of 826,800litres of squash per year with a required capital investment cost of US$17,623. The project is estimated to generate annual revenue of US$433,020, generate a net profit margin of 25% and a payback period of 4 months. The production process is very simple as it involves squeezing, filtering, boiling and preservation. Good quality ripe fruits are washed, peeled and cleaned. Then the juice is extracted from fruits and is filtered to remove seeds and fibres. Then the juice is processed and sterilized and then syrup of sugar preservatives are added and this mixture is stirred till a uniform solution is formed. After, the bottling and packing is done

  1. PRODUCTION OF CITRUS PEEL CANDY

Citrus peel candies are processed fruit products that are consumed as packed beverages. The market for processed beverages exists in Uganda with major consumers such as: supermarkets, restaurants, hotels, wholesale and retail shops. This business idea is to establish a citrus peel candy plant that can produce an estimated output of 3,000 liters of candy with an investment cost of US$21,590, generating an estimated annual revenue of US$374,400, with a net profit margin of 40% and a payback period of 6 months. The production process is simple but takes a number of stages. Fruits such as oranges are collected, washed and rinsed. They are then culled to remove any damages and later graded into fruit sizes. The fruits are later passed to the juicing machine where they are squeezed and then passed on to the finisher. Here pulp and seeds are removed using filter sieves strainers.The filtered concentrate now goes through the blending tanks that measure the natural sugar in the concentrate to ensure that the set sugar standard is reached. After blending, the concentrate is pasteurized to make the juice long lasting. The juice is now passed to the refrigeration room where it’s filled into the plastic or cardboard containers through the funnel and packed.

  1. ACTIVATED CARBON FROM COCONUT SHELL

The activated carbon is widely used for the absorption of toxic gasses and vapors. This product has a good marketability with proper linkages of the manufacturers, and in the sewerage industry. This business idea is premised on production of into 120,120 tons per year and requires a capital investment of USD 23,790. The revenue potential is estimated at US$15,015 per month, translating into US$180,180 per year, with a net profit margin of 29% and payback period of 1 year 3 months.The process consists of crushing the coconut shell in a hammer mill to a required size and then pulverizing in a ball mill. The shell powder is digested with zinc chloride. The mass is then activated at elevated temperature. The activated pellets are quenched and leached counter-currently by diluted hydrochloric acid and dried in a tray.

  1. MAKING TOMATO SAUCE & PASTE

Tomatoes are used for various culinary preparations and are known to improve taste in sauce or salads. They are widely grown in almost all the areas of Uganda. Therefore, they have a high demand throughout the year. This business idea is premised on production of 30,004 tins per month which translates into 360,048 packed tines per year. The revenue potential is estimated US$342,048 per year with a net profit margin of 64% and a payback period of 4 months. The process involves selecting ripe tomatoes for preparation of tomato products. The tomatoes are heated in the steam-jacked kettle until they soften, then pressed through a pulping machine to separate the juice from the seeds and skin. Tomato juice is normally bottled or canned. The manufacture of tomato sauce involves concentration of the juice, addition of juice extracts, salt and then boiling to attain 30oc-35oc degrees of concentration. After adding vinegar, which acts as a preservative, the tomato source is bottled for sale.

  1. MAKING ADHESIVE PLYWOOD

Plywood is a common building material that is used to line roofs or as wall or floor paneling. It is also used in furniture manufacturing and it is made by gluing together an odd number of thin layers of wood. Plywood can be made from hardwood or softwood and this determines its use. The building and construction sector would thus form the biggest component of the market for plywood adhesive. The production capacity is 300 pieces per day and estimated revenue is approximated at US$2,152,800 per year, with a net profit margin of 8% and payback period of 2 months.

  1. BANANA FIBER PRODUCTS

The banana fiber is a widely used product in making coarse woven fabrics e.g. sacks, ropes, twigs, sand bags, tents, webbings, canvas and screens, kit bags, tool bags, luggage, gunny bags and covers.The fiber is extracted from the pseudo-stem of banana. Banana fiber can also be blended with wool and cotton for making blankets, carpets etc. The proposed project is for setting up a banana fiber making plant to utilize the products of the variety of banana plantations in Uganda. The project cost is US$ 4,325 with capacity of 46,800kgs per year, revenue estimates stand at US$ 93,600 annually and a net profit margin of 72%.Production ProcessThe production process starts with the extraction of the fiber from banana pseudo-stem. The process involves splitting of the banana pseudo-stem into strips, injection in open vats followed by washing and drying. By using traditional techniques, the fiber can be converted into various utility items. Production capacity is projected at 150kgs per day.A wide range of products can be produced which enjoy good market in both rural and urban areas. It’s a potential boost to the tourism sector and economy as a whole since many tourists like these products.

  1. MAKING DRIED OYSTER MUSHROOMS

Mushrooms are a delicacy among members of society, therefore have a high demand. Areas of focus include restaurants, hotels, and supermarket chains. Oyster mushrooms are a popular exotic mushroom. They have a delicate texture and just a hint of seafood in their flavor. Originally wild harvested, growing from the side of tree trunks, Oyster mushrooms are now widely cultivated. The total investment requirement is US $9,272per year, with revenue estimates of US$104,832 per year, with a net profit of 7% and a payback period of 9 months.Mushrooms are very perishable and have to be processed to raise their shelf life. Mushrooms are dried (12% moisture) and this keeps away mosquitoes. Dried mushrooms can be stored for more than a year, but there is a change in their taste and flavor. Dried mushroom can be ground to make mushroom soup. A tunnel drier can be constructed from ordinary materials, and it uses less energy than most other driers. A tunnel drier gives a high quality product. Then mushrooms are packed in plastic or foil paper which protects and holds in moisture.

  1. TOMATO GREEN HOUSE

A green house is a building in which plants are grown. This business idea aims at a production capacity of 110 kgs per day throughout the year assuming a 3 month production cycle annually. The revenue potential is estimated at US$ 20,000 per quarter translating into US$ 80,000 per year. The total investment capital is US$ 53,400 and a profit of US $ 9,080 per year. The project is expected to yield a net profit margin of 11% and to have a payback period of 7 months.The idea involves acquiring and preparation of land, setting up the green house, planting the tomatoes, managing the garden, harvesting the tomatoes when they are ready and marketing the tomatoes. Tomatoes are consumed by a big number of people in the county everyday so there market potential is big especially in markets and supermarkets.

  1. DEHYDRATED FRUITS AND VEGETABLES

Fruits like grapes, oranges, papaya, mangoes, etc. are largely grown in Uganda. However, they are harvested seasonally resulting in some seasons of relative scarcity. In order to maintain the availability of fruits and vegetables throughout the year, the activity of dehydration is undertaken.The process of dehydration also helps constitute fruits and vegetables in a hygienic condition. The estimated capital investment US$5,150, with revenue estimates of US$40,560 per year, with net profit of 38% and a payback period of 1 year and 3months.The process starts with major selection of the fruits and vegetables, and washing them. They are peeled, shelled, sliced, blanched and dehydrated under controlled conditions.The dehydrated fruits and vegetables are finally packed in suitable containers to avoid moisture absorption. Dehydration of fruits & vegetables is done by various processes like Traditional Sun Drying, Solar Dryers, Mechanical Dryers, vacuum freeze drying, vacuum drying, Osmotic dehydration, dehydration through explosion puffing and microwave based technique.The envisaged project has minimum daily capacity of 100kg per day. The market for fruits and vegetables exists and all year round. Supply is bound to increase the returns to investment. Supply is recommended to supermarket chains, grocery shops, main markets, as they can help a lot in capturing a portion of the market. With an increased shelf life for the fruits and vegetables, the profit sales ratio is bound to increase.

  1. MAKING ACTIVATED CARBON FROM RICE HUSKS

This project is for the production and marketing of activated carbon from rice husks. The activated carbons are widely used for the absorption of toxic gasses. Therefore, this product has a good marketability with proper linkages of the manufacturers, especially in the sugar industry and in the sewerage industry. The revenue potential for this idea is estimated at US$202,800 per annum, with a net profit of 50%and a payback period of 1 year and 2 months.The process of making activated carbon from rice husks consists of crushing the rice husks in a hammer mill to required size and then pulverizing them in a ball mill. The husk powder is digested with zinc chloride. The mass is then activated at elevated temperature. The activated pellets are quenched and leached counter-currently by diluted hydrochloric acid and dried in a tray drier.

  1. CATTLE RAISING

Cattle raising is devoted chiefly to raising and breeding cattle, for beef or dairy products. Cattle have to be handled with a lot of care to avoid diseases. Cattle ‘provide beef, milk. Skin, hides, Cheese, decomposed manure (fertilizers) and others. This may normally cost US$ 47,849One acre should contain one animal when supplemented with additional feeds but 100 acres should contain an average of 60 animals.

  1. BUTTER MAKING

This profile envisages the establishment of a plant that produces Butter. Butter is a spread made from solidified cream. Cream is taken from milk and then churned. Eventually Butter globules form, and start to clump together. Two products result at the end: Butter, and the liquid left over, which is called Butter milk.This plant will be capable of producing 400 kgs of Butter every day which will tantamount to 10400 kgs per month.Butter is made through the process of churning milk cream. The churning process breaks down a membrane around the Butterfat molecules, allowing them to adhere to each other, thus coagulating to form Butter. Butter forms in the final two minutes of the churning process. Salt used to be added to Butter as a preservative, slowing down the growth of bacteria in the Butter; today, it is added mostly as flavouring for those who are used to or prefer the taste of salted Butter.

  1. MAKING BIO FERTILIZERS

This profile envisages the setting up of a plant that manufactures Bio – Fertilizers. Bio-fertilizer’ is a substance which contains living microorganisms which, when applied to seeds, plant surfaces, or soil, colonizes the rhizosphere or the interior of the plant and promotes growth by increasing the supply or availability of primary nutrients to the host plant. Fertilizers directly increase soil fertility by adding nutrients. Bio-fertilizers add nutrients through the natural processes of fixing atmospheric nitrogen, solubilizing phosphorus, and stimulating plant growth through the synthesis of growth promoting substances. This plant will be established on the premise of producing 1000kg of bio-fertilizers per day.The total fixed Capital investment cost to start this project is USD 17822

  1. PROCESING COCOANUTS (DESICCATED COCONUTS)

The business idea is for the production and marketing of desiccated coconuts. The dehydrated shredded flesh of coconut known as desiccated coconut is often used as a substitute to grated coconut in food preparations such as curries, cakes, sweets and chutneys. Confectionery and bakery units are the main consumers of desiccated coconut. Desiccated Coconut Powder is obtained by drying ground or shredded coconut kernel after the removal of brown testa. From the survey, it is revealed that coconut products are highly demanded by both the middle class and upper class families residing in cities and towns. The TC for this project is US$ 156,362 per year with revenue estimated at US 182,520 per year.The process consists of the removal of coconut shell, de-husking, shelling and paring. The nuts are then washed, disintegrated, dried and packed for the market.

  1. MAKING FRUIT BARS

This business idea is for the production and marketing of fruit bars. Fruit bars are made of: mango, guava, pineapple bananas, jackfruit and apples which are nutritious and refreshing. Fruit bars have the same taste with nutritional qualities and are liked by both children and adults. The TR is estimated at US$ 499,200 per year, with production capacity estimated at 500 fruit bars per day. The total investment cost is estimated at US$399,746.After making pulp, the pulp is mixed with sugar and citric acid, which is poured as layers in trays. The pulp is then dried and packed in polyethylene film (food grade) to avoid moisture from entering the product.Fruit bars have a great market potential in both rural and urban areas. They could be supplied to supermarket chains, parking yards and grocery stores.

  1. GREEN TEA POWDER-MATCHAI

Tea powder is almost used in every household .Green powder tea called matcha is very easy to make and can even be produced at home.The production process involves fermenting fresh tea leaves and then drying them. After drying the fermented tea leaves, then they are chopped into small pieces and grinded to a fine powder. Flavours can be added to make it tastier. The project is aimed at producing 131,040kgms of green powdered tea annually generating TR of US $220,147in the first year of operation. The total operation costs of the project are estimated at US $153,216.Green tea powder is not very common on the market therefore when introduced; many people will shift to its consumption. Supplying supermarkets, wholesale and retail shops and selling to individual consumers can be viable though advertisement costs have to be considered as the product is not common on the market so as to increase the sales.

  1. AQUACULTURE

Aquaculture is the growing of fish and any other water creatures. It is a foreign culture in our society. There has been a lot of encouragement to local communities to get involved but it has not yet formed grip. However, despite the initial capital outlay, this type of farming would generate some good financial earning to the farmers.The business risk involved is healthy and safety related risks surrounding the manufacturing and processing. However, this is can be solved by employing food scientists and adhering a strict regime of health and safety.The Business Idea estimates fixed capital of US$14,428 and operating costs of US$4,576,534 generating revenue of US$ 295,200 in the first year of operationThis business proposal does not yield any profits in the first harvest after six months. This is due to a huge excavation cost for quality Ponds that lasts for 60 years. The fish market is readily available because the lake fish is very expensive and scarce since most of it is processed for export. Secondly, the fish skeletons which were being sold to the public after processing for export are also currently exported. Furthermore, aquaculture would be sustained better if the farmers would indulge in poultry and Piggery because their dropping would be of great use in the ponds.

  1. CULTIVATION AND MARKETING OF FLOWERS

This business idea is for cultivation and marketing of flowers. Growing flowers is an art – or activity and craft of growing plants, with a goal of creating a wonderful & beautiful world around. Flowers are a symbol of love, beauty, affection, romance, etc. Flowers have a high economic value both at face value and for extracting perfumes and other products. Flowers are highly demanded especially for personal adornment and decoration. The production capacity per day is estimated at 360 per day with a total investment estimated at US$ 3794 while revenue is estimated at US$ 193752 per year.Flowers can be grown in any soil but most soils will be improved by treatment of some sort before planting. Flowers are heavy feeders and thrive best in well worked and well-drained soils. The beds should be prepared 6-12 months prior to planting. If prepared suitably, beds can last a long time. Flowers are propagated by seeds, stem or root cuttings, layering, budding and grafting. Propagation by stem cuttings is the most common used method. The seeds are planted in a nursery at intervals of 2.5-5 cm.The nursery beds are sparingly watered thrice a week and kept clean of weeds. The growing stems are then transferred to the real field in wooden structures.

  1. MANUFACTURING SCENTED PHENYL

This business idea is for manufacturing and marketing of Scented phenyl. Scented phenyl is used as a disinfectant to clean wash basins, toilets, and kitchen sinks etc. It is used in residential houses and commercial establishments such as: hospitals, offices and shops etc., as a disinfectant and also for some pleasant smell. It is used in most households and other institution like hotels and thus has a good market potential. The business idea is premised on production of 2,600 liters of scented phenyl per month which translates into 31,200 liters per annum. The revenue potential is estimated at US$5,096 per month translating into US$61,152 per annum with a sales margin of 58% and total investment requirement is US$3,190 for the first year of project operationThe production capacity depends on the quantity of raw materials and technology used in the production process. But for this case, the plant has a minimum capacity of 31,200 liters of scented phenyl per annum and this is on the basis of 312 working days in a year and 8-hour single work shifts in the working days.The raw materials are weighed and put separately. After preparing the caustic soda solution, required quantities of resin, castor oil, light creosote oil and caustic soda solution, are mixed together in a reactor. After obtaining the final product from the storage tanks, the final product can be packed into bottles and ready for market.Market for scented phenyl is growing due to good fragrance and also because of almost the same cost as that of ordinary phenyl. The wide application in commercial establishments, hospitals, hotels, nursing homes and restaurants, etc., has carved a good market niche for this product.

  1. MAKING NATURAL FIBRE YARN(ROPES)

This business idea is for the production and marketing of ropes, Ropes prepared by fiber yarn are used for different purposes. The ropes are used in all the sectors of the economy but are most prominent in the agricultural sector. Right from livestock keeping to simple cultivation and then to commercial farming, ropes play a substantial role in the farming processes. Setting up a small plant to make ropes out of fiber yarn using local materials like jute is thus a good entrepreneurial idea. The business idea is premised on the production of 800 ropes per day, 20800 per month and 249600 per year. The revenue potential is estimated at 1,457,664 US $ per year.By using sewing machine parts, the yarn is spun, which is operated by sitting on a stool and by simply pedaling the table model sewing machine. The total Operating costs for this project is 227,370 US $ per yearRopes are highly demanded in various sectors of the economy especially agricultural sector both urban and rural areas.

  1. MAKING BAMBOO PRODUCTS

This business idea is for making of bamboo products. Bamboo products are made out of natural resources available in rural areas. The application of bamboo is widely found in making variety of baskets, partitions, candy sticks, trays used in sericulture, etc. The business idea aims at production of 520 units per month which translates into 6240 units annually. The revenue potential is estimated at $54,600 per annually with a total capital investment of $1,465. The project has an estimated net profit of 14,594 and a payback period 2 years and 7 months.Plant capacityThe idea envisages production of 6,240 units annually.The equipments used are knives and fixtures. Hand tools are also used. The manufacturing process starts with splitting bamboo into thin wafers to suit the variegated needs of the end product. This is followed by manually knitting the split wafers into products especially designed to cater for the needs of the customers.The bamboo products have a ready market both in rural and urban areas. A variety of bamboo products are used for storage of fruits, vegetables and grains etc. There is potential market at: traditional sites, tourist centers, public and private offices, hotels, etc. which would help in promoting this industry.

  1. MAKING SISAL FIBRE HANDICRAFTS

This business idea is for production of sisal fiber handicrafts. Sisal fiber extracted from sisal leaves is used for making many types of decorative items, bags, wall hangings and toys. The products from sisal are normally appealing in tourist places, hotels and restaurants with a business risk is competition from other manufacturer thus need for proper management and control of the business. The business idea aims at production of 1,300 pieces of fiber handicrafts. The revenue potential is estimated at US$ 524,160 per year with a net profit margin 7%. The total capital investment for the project is US$ 1,260. Sisal leaves are cut and fiber extracted through a Raspador machine. After washing in water and subsequent drying, the leaves are ‘beaten’ to remove undesired particles. The dry fiber is used for making braids, which are dyed and made into attractive handicrafts

  1. MAKING DECORTICATED CASHEWNUT

This business idea is for Production and marketing of edible cashew nuts, the business idea is premised on production of 6,680 kgs of cashew nuts per month which translates into 56160 per year. The revenue potential is estimated at US$ 5408 per month, translating into 64896 per year. The project cost is US $ 64,896In the mechanized system, the raw cashew nuts are decorticated using a hand operated machine, mounted on a work table. The decorticator splits the nut when placed between two horizontally mounted blades, especially spread to suit the contour of the raw nut. The outer shell is conveniently split by sliding and splitting action of blades. An operator can process 25-30 kg nuts per day.The plant can have a capacity 9000 kgs per year. Cashew nuts are highly demanded on the world market. Local market also exists although cashew nuts are not very common in all the areas of Uganda. This could turn out to be the turning factor in the marketing of cashew nuts as they have an open market, with limited competition.

  1. ESSENCE EXTRACTION FROM CURRY LEAVES

This business idea is for essence extraction from curry leaves. Essence adds flavor and taste to food. For one to enter the market, it is recommended that s/he targets supplying to supermarket chains, grocery/retail shops and restaurants. The business idea aims at production of 46,800 bottles of essence annually. The revenue potential is estimated at US $ 702,000 annually. The total capital investment for the project is US $ 4,700. The profiled plant has a minimum capacity of 150 vials per day and this is an output of a single 8-hour work shift. Essence is extracted from the curry leaves with the essence extractor or distillation set then the liquid is filled in bottles and sealed. The room should be moist to conserve the fresh curry leaves.

  1. JEWELLERY MAKING

This is about making jewelry such as rings, brooches, chains, and bracelets by cutting, shaping and polishing the material for producing fashion jewels. Jewelry is used by women mostly though of late men have started using it. This business idea aims at production of 200 pieces of jewelry per day thus 62,400 pieces annually. The revenue potential is estimated at US $ 62,400 annually and the total investment is estimated at US $ 1,580 in the first year of Project operation. The net profit margin is estimated at 39%. It involves collecting, designing and decorating beads, horns, metals, stones, shells and joining them with threads and strings.The market for jewels is constant throughout the year and could include the following; beauty shops, market places, street vending places, work places, homesteads, salons and tourist places.

  1. SHOCK ABSORBER RECONDITIONING

Shock absorbers are essential items for smooth riding of any automobile. Their basic function is to absorb any shocks to ensure a comfortable ride and better control of the vehicle/automobile. With the high number of automobiles in Uganda and noting the state of most of Uganda’s roads, the rate at which shock absorbers are replaced is high. The project cost is US$12,740, capacity of 4,000 per year giving US$13,978 as revenue in a year.Shock absorbers are opened and checked for oil passage and required pressure. The dirt is removed and fresh oil is filled after replacing rubber bushes and seals.The profiled plant has a minimum capacity of reconditioning 4,000 shock absorbers per annum but this can be increased as a bigger customer base is captured.The market is mainly from existing vehicles for reconditioning the shock absorbers. The used shock absorbers can be reconditioned and used, which costs less than a quarter of the Price of a new set. It would also be recommended to liaise with automobile dealers.

  1. FOOD VENDING

This business idea involves preparing different kinds of foodstuffs. The food is prepared and served to people at their work places. The various local dishes prepared include: Matooke, groundnuts, beef stew, rice, sweet potatoes, beans, cassava, peas chicken and greens.The business risk involved is healthy and safety related risks surrounding the manufacturing and processing. The business idea is premised on production of 130 plates of food per day which translates into 3,380 plates of food per month and 40,560 plates per year. The revenue potential is estimated at US $85,800 per year and net profit margin 27%.Raw food stuffs are procured from the market and processed through various preparations then cooked using either a charcoal stove or firewood. Various additions can be added through frying the sauce to add flavor.The market for this business consists of people who are not able to prepare food because of their commitments at their work place. The food will be vended in different places like workplaces, markets, building sites and bus stages.

  1. ESTABLISHING A WAY-SIDE RESTAURANT

There is high demand for food and beverages in Uganda. Any attempt in establishing a modern restaurant can prove to be a profitable business especially when it’s located in a good area. The establishment of this project requires a total fixed cost of US$16,300, and operating costs of US$ 98676, generating revenue of US$ 242,040 in the first year of operation. The production process involves preparation of food, beverages and snacks. The market readily exists as food products are consumed by everybody & combined with outside catering services. The business can be a viable venture.

  1. MOBILE FOOD VENDING

This proposal is production and mobile vending of food. About 200 covers would be produced daily. The Project costs are US $ 16,450 and estimated revenues stand at US $93,600 per year. Market potential is great since hotels and restaurants are expensive and away from work places. This will deliver the food at the required time and take away the utensils soon. This service limits the movement of workers and makes them more productive.A variety of food stuffs would form the menu for this venture. Different foods are prepared, cooked by boiling, frying, steaming, baking, stewing. This is then packed in containers that are taken to different service points and some delivered directly to offices or business premises. Mobile vans or motor bikes can be used to transport the food.Food is a human necessity and therefore the market for this business is guaranteed. What is required here is ensuring quality food, fast and reliable services.

  1. MAKING EXPANDED PET PRE-FOAMS FOR PACKAGING

This project is for manufacturing and marketing of Expanded Pet pre-foams. Foam nets are preferred over conventional packaging materials due to their merits. They are mainly used for packaging glass bottles, medicine and electronic instruments.The business idea is premised on production of 2002 rolls per month which translates into 24,024 rolls per year, with a capital investment of US$35,100. The revenue potential is estimated at US$96,096 per year with a net profit margin of 24% and a payback period of 3 years 6 months.LDP along with additives like blowing agent, talcum powder, etc. are mixed in the blender. This mixture is fed into the hopper of the extruder where the molten substance is mixed with Freon gas to provide smooth & glassy surface and strength. The extruded LDPE passes through a multi hole double rotation and expands.LDPE foam nets are pulled out by drawing machine and trimmed by pneumatic device. The nets are dropped into stainless steel container smoothly and continuously, from where they are removed, packed and sent to the market.

  1. MANUFACTURING METALIC FASTENERS

Belt fasteners are used widely in industries manufacturing suit cases, travel bags, apparel belts, shoes etc. They could be manufactured in different sizes and designs depending on the demand. The unit would make the buckles for the belts as well as the shoes in different varieties. The variety may include double wire lock buckle, oval shape shoe buckle, square pronged buckle, rectangular buckle among others. There are however no standard set up for these items since the designs, size, and material are constantly changing due to the market demand.The manufacturing process involves the use of two types of machines which include a power press as well as hand press on one hand and a hook making machine on the other. The mild steel plate of gauge 19/20 is cut into strips of appropriate size using a bench shearing machine. The sheared plate is then punched out using a power press, and finally, fly presses are used to mould and smoothen the article. The produced article goes through the electroplating plant to give it the final desired coloring or look which may be chrome, golden, silver etc. The established setup would produce about 2,500 pieces of fasteners of different sizes a day thus 780,000 per year. The Revenue Potential is estimated at 234,000 per year. The net profit margin is at 51%. The market for fasteners is readily available as there are many small scale establishments engaged in the production of items that would use these products. Currently these items are imported. Their absence may contribute to failure to manufacture belts locally. Thus, this is a venture likely to stimulate other items to be produced. They could be exported to our neighbors especially Kenya where their use is more pronounced.

  1. MAKING WAX CANDLES

Candles are cylindrical structures made of wax and are used for illumination purposes. Their market structure is relatively high since they are used in hotels, households, churches and for decorative purposes. They are available in ordinary, fancy shapes and various sizes. The business idea aims at production of 14,612 wax candles per month which translates into 175,344 wax candles per year. The revenue potential is estimated at US$ 1,753 per month, translating into US$ 21,041 per year with a sales margin of 20%. The total investment capital for this project is US$17,586.The demand for this product.The production capacity for the project depends on the size of a mould used. For example, a medium mould can produce 70 wax candles per hour and a single 8-hour working shift per working day produces 562 candles. But in a period of one month the machine can produce 14,612 wax candles and each candle costs at a minimum US$0.075-0.15). The Equipments used are simple and can be fabricated locally. It Includes: Aluminum mould, charcoal stove, knife, saucepan and firewood. The process involves wax and satiric acid which are melted in a mild steel mould. The wick is inserted in the candle – moulding machine and the molten mass is poured in the cylindrical mould and it is cooled by water and poured on the floor. When completely dry, the wick threads are trimmed and then packed.The market for candles is available throughout the year both in rural and as urban areas.

  1. MANUFACTURING OF FISHING HOOKS

Modern fishing hooks are used in fishing of large fish such as Nile perch, fishing in ponds and wells etc.The investment in this project requires a certain big amount of capital, but the payback period is short. An estimated fixed capital of US$53,023 and operating costs of US$ 123,094, when invested can generate estimated revenue of US$ 283,920, in the first year of operation. The net profit margin for this project is 57%. And the pay pack period is estimated at 1 year 8 month.The production technology involves heating a hook material to exact temperature that is perfect for that particular style and then molded depending on the size, and design. The hot hook is then cooled in oil. After cooling, then sharpening of the finished hook is done using sharpening fabricating machines.The market for fishing hooks widely exists since the fishing industry in Uganda is a vibrant one contributing to about 10% of the GDP.

  1. PLASTIC BRICKS

The business idea is for making and marketing of plastic bricks. This business idea is premised on production of 13,000 plastic bricks per month which translates into 156,000 plastic bricks per year. The revenue potential is estimated at US $ 13,000 per month which translates into US$ 156,000 per year. The project cost is US $ 12,743.The process involves filling and compacting soil in mineral water bottles. After compacting, the bottles are then sealed with bottle caps.Plastic bricks making is still a new idea on market, but the bricks are believed to be long lasting for a period of 100 years if used. They are suitable when constructing in wetlands. The idea will also help government and local authorities to reduce on plastic waste and protect the environment.

  1. CROCHETING AND EMBROIDERY IN UGANDA

This business idea is for production and marketing of products such as: Sweaters, Sleeveless/ Waist Coats, Shawls Socks, Table Clothes and Embroidery on Caps, Jackets, Shirts, Gifts and more. The business idea is premised on production of various products with a revenue potential of US$ 80,093 per month which translates into US$ 961,116 per year. The project cost is US 27,050 Dollars.The person knitting needs to have a Knitting Machine. The Burbins are loaded with threads, and then they start knitting. For Embroidering, a mult-head embroidering machine is loaded with thread in their burbins; embroidering is done according to the desired computerized image or picture.The business has a great market demand from Schools, Colleges, Corporate, NGOs; Households, Security organs and the various forces for designing and printing their uniforms.

  1. BUSINESS IDEA FOR PAINT MANUFACTURING

Paint manufacture involves the mixing of different chemicals at different sequences and at specified durations for them to set and form a thick and, or sticky solution that is used to coat structure surfaces when applied to give them a decorated look of the desired colours. The mixing is done by a trained person with acumen in that field. This industry product is on high demand since the Construction sector is growing very fast and booming. The capital outlay is a bit stretched but the return on investment justifies it.The project requires an estimated fixed capital of US$ 14,544 and operating costs of US$ 491,765 generating revenue of US$ 698,880 in the first year of operation.Paint manufacture machinery and equipment can be located in a moderate space of about 15ft *20ft, and a store of about 15ft* 10ft plus an office space of about 120 square feet. The factory production capacity depends on the size of the machinery the shifts operated and the capital invested. If materials are available, the factory can operate up to three shifts. Costing is based on a capacity of 2,000 jerry cans of emulsion paint a month.Construction Sector is one of the fastest growing sectors in the country. There is therefore, a ready market for the paint and paint products once quality is taken into account during production. Construction Companies, Estate Developers, Hardware shops, Institutions as well as individuals are the potential customers.

  1. MANUFACTURING HALF BRICKS

The construction sector is the most vibrant sector in Uganda today registering the highest level of growth and therefore any investment in such sector takes a lucrative path.The Business Idea is targeted towards investing in a sector that is very vibrant with its products being on rising demand .An estimated output of 4056000half bricks per year has been done and fixed capital of20475US$ if injected in the project with operating costs of 51007US$, can yield an estimated revenue of 54756US$ in the first year of operation.The production capacity depends on the machine used and the skilled manpower employed to operate it.The production process of bricks is quite simple as it majorly involves mixing of the soil, moulding, drying the bricks but gently in a shade not by direct sunshine to reduce cracks that may develop on the brick. After drying them for about two weeks, they are well built to gather and then burnt. The burnt bricks are left for about four days and thereafter can be sold.The demand for bricks is very high more especially by housing estate developers, construction companies, individual construction projects etc.

  1. MAKING COTTON T-SHIRTS

This business idea is for production and marketing of cotton t-shirts. Cotton t-shirts are particularly for sports and casual wear. A good sweat absorbent wear, these garments are soft, tough and wrinkle free. The revenue is estimated at US$ 702,000 per year, and the project cost is estimated at US$ 107,819 inclusive of operating cost in the first year and the revenue potential is USD 702,000. The pay period is 3 months at net profit of 87%.The production capacity per day is 450 t-shirts per day. The risk associated is marketing mix which can be managed by better management and control of the business.As per the desired sizes and designs, the knitted fabric is cut into pieces and labeled as per measurement of the latest designs for the market. Then, the required button stitching is added to the semi-finished fabrics. These products undergo strict quality control measures as knitted shirts and finished garments that are ready for packing and marketing.The demand for T-shirts has been increasing as a casual wear especially for sportswear. Apart from domestic demand, the shirts enjoy a lot of demand from the export market. With the current market prospects in the Western countries, this could yet turn out to be a very profitable project

  1. MANUFACTURING OF BALL-PEN REFILLS

The proposed plant is for manufacture of refills for the ball pens. The ball pen has almost replaced the conventional fountain pens, with the use-and-throw refills, creating a niche of its own. Thanks to the ease and convenience of the ball pens, they have turned into the most preferred medium of writing, which is not only cost -effective, but also serves the variegated needs of the people who write. These come in different sizes and in various colours made from a very small diameter HDPE tubes filled with a special type of ink. The business idea aims at production of 500 units per day thus 156,000 units per annum. The revenue potential is estimated at US $ 31,200 annually and the startup capital is US $2,660 thus total capital investment of the project is US$ 23,887. The payback period is approximately 1 year with a net profit margin of 32%.The HDPE granules are fed into the extruder through hopper to produce extruded plastic tubes, which are cut to fit into various sizes of the ball pens by a cutter unit and the metal tips are fitted, ink filled to make the refills ready for use. They are then packed in a plastic film by a machine and dispatched to the market for bulk sell.Plastic ball pens are now gradually becoming a part of common possession, which turns popular by the year. Refills, an integral part of ball pens, also have good demand both in domestic as well as export market. Supply to educational institutions, public and private offices would help capture the market.

  1. MANUFACTURING MOSQUITO REPELLANT CREAM

This proposal is for producing cream that drives mosquitoes away from whoever applies the product. Mosquitoes are a menace to human race as they transmit malaria parasites through their bite. They must therefore be kept at bay. This can be successfully done by applying a repellent cream which keeps them at bay. The cream is applied on the exposed parts of the body e.g. the face and neck; the legs, the hands, and it remains effective for about 10 hours. The project requires an estimated fixed capital of US$ 629 and total operating costs of US$84,566 generating revenue of US$126,000 in the first year of operation with a net profit margin of 33%. The payback period is estimated at 4 years.Snow white petroleum jelly is heated and melted in stainless steel air-tight vessel and when it reaches a boiling point, mosquito repellent essential oil is added and allowed to mix thoroughly. Color may be added if desired. After, the solution is filled in plastic containers and placed on trays to cool. These are later cleaned, labeled and packed in dozens and sealed for dispatch to the market.The market is wide since malaria is one of the biggest killer diseases in Uganda. The people who feel uncomfortable by sleeping under mosquito nets can easily switch to repellant creams.

  1. MAKING HERBAL BATH SOAP

This profile envisages the setting up of a plant for the production of Herbal bath soap with a capacity of 200kg per day. The herbal bath soap is a kind of soap that contains natural ingredients like the essential oils from aloe vera, patchouli, citronella, rose and sampaguita.The demand for herbal soap is widely spread all over the Country although it may also be exported.

  1. MAKING ALUMINUM POWDER

Aluminium powder is a fine granular powder made from aluminium which has several applications and is used in the manufacturing of slurry explosives, detonators for specialized applications such as rails, crackers, sparkles and other pyrotechnic products. The envisaged project is for setting up of a plant to make this powder. The project cost is US $ 30,351 with production capacity of 300,000 kgs per annum collecting estimated revenues US $ 44,998 per year.Aluminium metal is melted in a furnace with the temperature maintained around 7200-7600C. By inducing an air jet in the molten aluminium, small particles of atomized aluminium are produced. A jet of hot air under pressure is passed through annular opening, near the top, drawn by suction through orifice. This leads to the formation of small particles of aluminium. These particles are drawn by suction, through a collecting duct placed above the nozzle, and finally get into a cyclone collecting system. The process of sieving segregates different sizes of aluminium powder. The envisaged plant would have a minimum plant capacity of 300 tonnes per annum. This is on the basis of 300 working days and single 8-hour daily work shifts.Production of aluminium powders of various grades and products, such as aluminium paste is not well established in the country. The aluminium powder industry is still of a relatively small size. With the introduction of a plant to make military hardware, the market for aluminium powder is bound to increase. There is also a market for export of aluminium powder and paste.

  1. BUSINESS IDEA FOR MAKING ARTIFICIAL SILK FLOWER

There are many types of artificial flowers including those made from glass, paper, porcelain and plastic, just to name but a few. The most popular artificial flowers are made from silk. All petals are made from white silk cotton and rayon fabric, regardless of the finished colour. The demand for silk flowers arises from the fact that they last much longer than natural flowers.The capacity of the firm depends on the type/design and size, however, it is estimated that at least 20 silk flowers can be produced per day.The process of making artificial flowers requires simple technology with a little artistic knowledge especially in flower designs.The fabric is die-cut into many petal shapes and sizes for one single type of flower. In the first process the petals are dyed using cotton balls and paint brushes to touch colour onto the petals beginning from the edge of the petal working towards the center. The dyeing of one petal can take up to an hour of concentrated work.The demand for artificial silk flowers arises from the fact that they are durable; they last longer compared to natural flowers. The market for silk flowers is very high in residential houses, factories, hotels, offices, and even overseas. Natural flowers wither in a few days and they are quite expensive.

  1. MAKING PLASTIC BANGLES

This business idea is for the production and marketing of plastic bangles Women world over wear bangles for elegancy. Plastic bangles have a good market as they are available in different designs and colours for different occasions and seasons. Thus setting up a plant to make plastic bangles is a good business and is quite viable. The TR is estimated at US$ 1,248,000 per year while the production capacity is estimated at 1,000 bangles per day. The total investment is estimated at US$ 852,277 per year.In manufacturing plastic bangles, acrylic pipes of different diameters are cut as per the demanded market size and thickness, which are engraved and polished and ultimately packed for market.Plastic bangles have a ready market both in rural and urban areas. More so, they are liked by tourists and are normally bought for remembrance. They are therefore supplied in tourist centers, cultural centers and all shops.

  1. MAKING BUCKETS

Buckets are a household item in many homes mainly used to draw and store water and to wash clothes. They are however, used to carry other items as well. They are popular because of their durability and multipurpose use. They are quite common in rural areas, although urban dwellers use them too. The project idea has been developed to tap into the existing market for metallic buckets. The project estimates fixed capital of US$ 3,049, operating costs of US$ 226,410, generating revenue of 247,104 US$ in the first year of operation. The project’s profit margin is estimated at 8%.Buckets are manufactured out of galvanized iron sheets. It is cut into required sizes within conical shapes. These are then assembled and swaging as a main production process is done. A handle is made out of cut to size steel rod and fitted on to the body. Utmost precision is focused on the fixing of the bottom to the body to ensure it does not leak.Buckets and drums are common in schools and training institutions and places of communal gatherings like community centers.

  1. SCREEN PRINTING UNIT

This project is for making and marketing of screen printing units. Screen Printing Unit is a type of printing done by using designs developed on nylon silk cloth by chemical method, which is used for printing items like cards, stickers, file covers and also used for textile printing. Different types of press that may be private or public sector undertakings are buyers of screen printing units therefore there is a high demand in the market. The idea is premised on production of 385 screen printing units per day which translates into 120,120 screen printing units per annum. The revenue potential is estimated at US$231 per day, translating into US$72,072, per year with a profit margin of 28%; and total investment is US$ 3,850 for the first year of project operation. The payback period is estimated at 5 months.Screen printing units involve developing the design on the nylon screen. After that, the screen is stretched on the wooden frame and the printing work taken up after cleaning the screen.The screen is left to dry through application of a mixture of screen coating solution and a sensitizer along with a chlomolyne film backside. The coated room is left to dry in a darkroom. The dried screen is then exposed to the positive film of the design with the help of sunlight. Later with a jet of water, the screen is washed thoroughly till such a time when the design is clear on the screen. Subsequently, it is left to dry again. Finally printing is done with a squeeze using the desired printing ink.Screen printing is popular and used by almost all people in the printing sector and product manufacturers. There is a high demand for printed materials, in both rural and urban areas.

  1. MANUFACTURING ARTIST’S COLOURS

Artist’s colors are widely used in many art paintings and designs. They are produced in many forms using different color material mixtures. The Business Idea is based on the need to explore the existing market especially with the vocationalisation of education. An estimated fixed capital of US $ 14,950 and operating costs of US$ 50,223, generating revenue of US$97,812 in the first year of operations. The net profit margin is 47% with the payback period of 1 year and 5 months.The production process of artist’s colors mostly involves mixing of artists’ color raw materials. Molten wax and citric acid is mixed with colors and clay using a mixer. The mixture is poured and cooled in the moulds to cast the wax crayons. The final product is then poured into printed tin boxes or glass bottles or paper cartoons.The market exists especially in schools, vocational institutions, art galleries, universities and in ordinary craft paintings.

  1. HORN BUTTONS

This involves production and marketing of horn buttons. A button is a small disc, typically round object usually attached to an article of clothing in order to secure an opening, or for ornamentation. Functional buttons work by slipping the button through a fabric or thread loop, or by sliding the button through a reinforced slit called a buttonhole. Horn buttons are made from cow and buffalo hooves and horns. Their market structure is relatively high since most clothes and some bags need horn buttons as fasteners.The business idea is premised on three hundred and twelve working days and single shift of 8 hours per day. The unit is designed to have production of 100 kilograms of horn buttons per day translating into an annual production of 31,200 Kilograms. The revenue potential is estimated at US$2,600 per month, translating into US$31,200 per year with a net profit margin of 16% and total investment requirement is US$11,807 for the first year of business Operation. The business idea’s payback period is 3 years.Technology and Process DescriptionHorn button making involves use of plant and machinery like Circular Saw, Band Saw, Boring Machine, Hole Drilling machine, Circular Designing Machine, Buffing Polishing Lathes, Polishing Drums, Belt Sander, Double Ended tool grinder, Metal TurningLathe and Filter Tools. Production process involves cutting of horns, boring, hole drilling, designing, buffing, polishing and packing.The market for horn buttons is readily available with designers, dress makers and tailors etc. clothes manufacturing industries.

  1. MAKING LEATHER SANDALS

The business idea is for making and marketing of leather sandals. It is premised on production of 18,200 Leather Sandals per month which translates into 218,400 Sandals per year. The revenue potential is estimated at US $ 50,960 per month which translates into US $ 611,520 per year. This project cost is US $ 10,150.After the tannery process, different layers of skins and hides are put together to make shoe soles, another piece is cut that will make the strings of the shoe. The two pieces are then inter-joined by use of either glue or sewing machine. The two are finally taken for smoothening more especially at the edges.There is an ever-increasing demand for leather products processed from skins and hides.

  1. MAKING FANCY LEATHER GLOVES

Leather gloves are used as protective wear for human hands. They are available in types and sizes and are sought after by all but especially motor bicycle riders and military personnel. The demand for leather gloves exists both in domestic and export markets. The business idea aims at production of 520 pairs of gloves per month, which translates into 6,240 pairs annually. The revenue potential is estimated at $ 44,928 annually year with a sales margin of 9.8%. The total capital investment for the project is $ 2,780.Plant CapacityThe profiled plant has a minimum capacity of 20 pairs of gloves per day.The fancy gloves manufacturing process involves selecting suitable leather of required colours and thickness, cutting the leather to the desired sizes and designs, and putting linings. Gloves are stitched with thumbs attached to the palm, textile lining are also stitched and joined with glove. Finally, buttons, elastic, are fitted and the gloves are packed.

  1. MAKING SHOE POLISH

It is usually a waxy paste or cream used to polish, shine, and water proof or improves and restore the appearance of leather and footwear products that it is used in both liquid and semi solid form. Shoe polish is not only used on footwear but can also be applied to all leather materials including bags, etc. The most prominent type of shoe polish, Kiwi, is imported and this gives local producers a chance to start producing shoe polish. Project capacity is 60,000 kgs annually with revenue estimated at US$ 98,842 per year. The payback period for this idea is 7 months and the net profit margin of 18%.The poured mass is allowed to settle slowly, providing uniform distribution. The process is considered straightforward and the required equipment is relatively easy to acquire. The cost of establishing a fully-fledged shoe polish manufacturing facility has been estimated at around $6800(as of 2012). The project can yield an estimated revenue of 98,842 US$ per year.

  1. MANUFACTURING PRINTING INK

Printing ink is one of the most needed products in the printing industry. Most of the printing ink is imported and this gives an opportunity for any new company to explore the un tapped section in the industry. This Idea therefore targets a wide market with an estimated fixed capital of US$ 15,020 and operating costs of US$ 377,663 generating revenue of US$ 561,600 in the first year of operation with the net profit margin of 33%.The payback period for the project is 3 months.The most efficient method of manufacturing printing ink is the paste form. Here raw materials such as dry pigments are mixed with additives such as oxidants, modifiers, driers wetting agents in a stainless planetary mixer. The mixture is then passed into a triple roll for a number of times until the required quality standard is attained. The paste form ink is then packed.The market for printing ink widely exists with major consumers such as: printeries, educational institutions, public and private offices etc.

  1. TOOTH BRUSH MAKING

This business idea is for making and marketing of tooth brushes. Toothbrushes are important for safeguarding teeth and cleaning the accessible surface, which helps prevent tooth decay and maintain dental hygiene and freshness. They have a wide market structure especially in urban areas throughout the year and can be made in different shapes and sizes.The business idea is premised on production of 260,000 toothbrushes per month which translates into 3,120,000 tooth brushes per annum and this is on the basis of 312 working days in a year and 8-hour single work shifts in working day. The revenue potential is estimated at US$528,321per month translating into US$6,240,000 per annum with a net profit margin of 92%. Total investment requirement is US$ 27,027 for the first year of project operation.In manufacturing toothbrushes, cellulose acetate is used in a multifamily injection-moulding machine to make handles. Mixed in a hopper of an automatic injection machine, cellulose acetate moulding powder is mixed together with a suitable dyestuff. The materials melt to take the shape of mould cavity after injecting this into multi-cavity moulds.On opening the mould, the handles are ejected. Brush handles thus obtained are put into automatic toothbrush making machine for boring, bristle filling and then tightening of bristle is done by fine steel or brass. The bristle is trimmed and packed ready for sale.Due to the increasing awareness, personal dental care and dental hygiene is recommended by dental surgeons and is generally accepted by people in both urban and rural areas. Therefore, this product provides good scope for new entrants in the field and considering the growth in the total population coupled with the increasing awareness, the products are bound to find a good market.

  1. MAKING RUBBER BANDS

This business idea is production and marketing of rubber bands. A rubber band is a short length of rubber and latex formed in the shape of a loop. They come in multiple colors. Such bands are typically used to hold multiple objects together. Rubber bands are elastic in nature and are extensively used for a variety of purposes in offices, shops and banks. Its establishment capital operational annual cost is modest at about US$ 45,501 per year, Potential revenue is estimated at US$70,200 per year and the production capacity is 80 bundles per day.Latex is prepared by using stabilizers and pigments through the normal dipping method. With the help of moulds, through dipping and vulcanizing, rubber tubes are prepared. These are used to prepare rubber bands in different sizes, colours and widths.Rubber bands have steady demand in the market. Financial institutions are the major users but trading community and others such as school, shop keeper etc. use substantial amounts too.

  1. BUSINESS IDEA FOR DISTILATION OF WATER

This business idea is for production of Distilled water to ensure its purity. The business idea is premised on the production of 200 liters per day which translates into 44,400 liters per year. The revenue potential is estimated at US$ 81,120 per year. The total Investment can cost about US $ 27,200.Tap water is collected and heated in a glass flask to the boiling point and thus vaporizes (becomes steam), While other substances remain in solid state, in boiler (glass flask). Steam is then directed into cooler (condenser tube) containing cold water, where it cools down and returns to liquid water, purified of additional substances found in it before distillationThere is high demand for distilled water as it is purified for human consumption, the distilled water can be supplied to supermarkets, retailers, wholesalers, hospitals and individual organizations.

  1. MANUFACTURING PLASTIC CONTAINERS

This business idea is for manufacturing and marketing of plastic containers. Plastic containers are light-weight, flexible and chemically resistant containers. They can be made in attractive colors which are most popular and are used for household purposes. In most parts of Uganda especially the rural areas, people use plastic containers because they are very durable. A project to manufacture plastic containers would be very viable since there is good market for the containers in both rural and urban areas. Supply to super markets, retail and whole sellers would help to capture part of the market.The business idea is premised on manufacturing 9,308 containers in different sizes per month, which translates into 111,696 containers per annum. But output can be increased as demand for the products gets established on the market. The revenue potential is estimated at US$14,893 per month translating into US$178,714 per annum with a sales margin of 20% and total investment requirement is US$15,785 for the first year of project operation. The net profit margin of this idea is 11% with a payback period of at least 8 months.The injection molding technique is simple. This is where the molten plastic is conveyed through a cool mould die of desired size and shape. The plastic takes the shape of the mould cavity and is finally removed and polished mechanically.Plastic Containers are extensively used in day-to-day activities with a solid potential market in both rural and urban areas.

  1. BUSINESS IDEA FOR MAKING HERBAL DEODORANT

The business idea is to set up a plant to make liquid deodorant that can be used in kitchens and bathrooms, etc. This business idea is premised on production of 13,000 Deodorants per month which translates into 156,000 Deodorants per year. The revenue potential is estimated at US $ 26,000 per month which translates into US $ 312,000 per year. This project cost is US $ 3,073.

  1. BUSINESS IDEA FOR MAKING SCHOOL BAGS

The idea is premised on production and marketing of 20,800 bags per month which translates into 249,600 bags per year. The revenue potential is estimated at USD 41,600 per month which translates into USD 499,200 per year. The business has a good market demand throughout the year especially at the beginning of term. This kind of investment can cost about US 122,116 in the first trading year.The manufacturing process calls for skill in cutting the raw material, followed by stitching and fixing accessories before it is packed for dispatch. An internal lining is fixed to prevent easy tearing from the inside.With the growing numbers of school-and-college-going children, the demand for these bags is on the rise. Hence, there is a ready market for neatly stitched bags. The plant may also incorporate in other bags like transport bags. These are all easily marketable in Uganda.

  1. MAKING LIQUID LAUNDRY SOAP

This profile envisages the establishment of a plant that will produce laundry liquid soap based on the capacity of 267 liters per day. The liquid laundry soap maybe used in hand or machine washing, that’s why it’s called laundry soap.It is important to thoroughly boil the lye solution so that it will become clean and clear.A. Making the Lye Solution – The proportion of one liter lye concentrate solution is: 45% or 450ml caustic potash and 55% or 550ml of water.1. Weigh the 450ml caustic potash accurately and dissolve this in 550ml water. Mix well in a pail. This is the lye solution.2. Place the pail with the lye solution on a big pail containing hot water so that the solution becomes slightly warm.B. Making the Soap1. Mix one liter of coconut oil and 560ml lye solution in the stainless steel container of the electric mixer.2. When the mixture is slightly blended, transfer the stainless container to the stove. Continue mixing while the mixture is being boiled or until its temperature reaches 180°F. Switch off the stove to maintain the 180°F temperature.3. Meanwhile, mix the Ethylene Diamine Tetra Acetic Acid (EDTA) with a little water in a separate container.4. Slowly add 428 to 432ml of boiling water to the mixture while stirring continuously.5. Continue stirring the mixture for one hour until it becomes clear.6. Allow 10-15 minutes to pass before adding the Coconut Diethanolamide (CDEA). The CDEA makes the soap produce more suds.7. Add 2-5ml of lemon fragrance to the liquid soap.8. When all of the ingredients have been thoroughly mixed, switch off the stove and the electric mixer. Remove the stainless steel container from the stove and allow the liquid laundry soap to cool.9. When cooled, pour the soap into the plastic bottle. Before using the soap, set aside for some time to let the caustic soda lose its effect. The liquid laundry soap is now ready to use.

  1. MAKING AIR FRESHENER

Air fresheners are consumer products that mitigate unpleasant odors within indoor spaces. They can be in form of candles, sprays and gel and can also be used as a deodorant. They are an item that both household and public offices can’t seem to do without. The freshener is also commonly used in both public and home toilets. The production capacity is estimated at 200 pieces per day, monthly production of 5,200 pieces and annual production of 62,400 which yields the TR US$162,240 per year, leading to net profit margin of 27% and payback period of 8 months.Air freshener cake is made out of Para dichlorobenzene, colour and perfume. These ingredients are properly mixed and molded by using fly press. The resulting gel of freshener is packed to avoid the absorption of moisture, which weakens the freshener.With increasing population and the need for improved living conditions, the demand for air freshener is also gradually increasing. The growing hygiene consciousness has attracted attention to this product. Hence, there is ready market in urban areas. Areas of target are: supermarket chains, retail shops, restaurants, hotels and tourist centers.

  1. TEFLON (PTFE) PRODUCTS – FRYING PANS

This profile envisages the setting up of a plant that manufactures Teflon products. For this case, this profile will look at Teflon frying pans. Teflon is a tough, waxy, nonflammable organic compound with a slippery surface, attacked by very few chemicals and stable over a wide temperature range. Its qualities make it useful in gaskets, bearings, container and pipe linings, electrical insulation, parts for valves and pumps used for corrosive fluids and protective nonstick coatings on cooking utensils, saw blades and other articles.This plant will be established on the premise of producing 200 sets (6 pieces each of Teflon frying pans per day giving rise to 6,000 sets of Teflon frying pans per month.One of the most common and visible uses of PTFE is coating for nonstick pots and pans. The pan must be made of aluminum or an aluminum alloy. The pan surface has to be specially prepared to receive the PTFE. First, the pan is washed with detergent and rinsed with water, to remove all grease. Then the pan is dipped in a warm bath of hydrochloric acid in a process called etching. Etching roughens the surface of the metal. Then the pan is rinsed with water and dipped again in nitric acid. Finally, it is washed again with deionized water and thoroughly dried.The liquid coating may be sprayed or rolled on. The coating is usually applied in several layers, and may begin with a primer. The exact makeup of the primer is a proprietary secret held by the manufacturers. After the primer is applied, the pan is dried for a few minutes, usually in a convection oven. Then the next two layers are applied, without a drying period in between. After all the coating is applied, the pan is dried in an oven and then sintered.The demand for Teflon coated frying pans is spread all over the country especially in schools, hotels, & individual households and may also be exported.

  1. MAKING RUBBER WASHERS

The rubber washers are rings made of rubber used in mechanical devices and are used to plug any sort of leak in the pipeline system, seal parts in contact with liquids. They are used to prevent vibrations from spreading from one part to another so reducing noise. These are mainly common with chemical and food industries as major consumers of rubber washers and gaskets, etc.With the continuing and increase in the rate of construction works, the demand for rubber washers, many of which are imported, will increase. The project annual operating cost is US $ 129,466 producing 359,986 units annually translating into revenue estimated at US $ 179,993 per year. The net profit margin is estimated 28% with a payback period of 4 months. Thus is viable and can be put up in areas where access to prime properties is guaranteed.In manufacturing these products, rubber compounds are cut into moulds and pressed with the help of hand press, which are heated with steam, cut to required sizes and finally packed for the market. The profiled plant has a minimum plant capacity of 359,986 units of washers per yearIndustrial houses are the major consumers of rubber washers. Therefore, the entrepreneur has to establish a network before entering the market. However, due to the booming premises’ construction in the country the market is promising.

  1. MAKING RUBBER STAMPS

Rubber stamps are used with some type of ink made of dye or pigment applied on them to leave a mark or an image or pattern that has been carved, molded, laser engraved when stamped on a piece of paper or anything. The stamps are made in different sizes and design as per the requirements of the customer. Manufacturing of rubber stamps is not only simple but also lucrative. Company seals can also be made in this project. It costs US$ 2,721 to be set up for the first year of operation with capacity production of 14,998 stamps per year and yielding TR of US$ 53,999 per annum. The net profit margin is at 5% with a payback period of 5 months.The letter types are arranged in a composing tray with the text placed along with spaces and lines fixed on to the frame of a wooden block. A mixture of plaster of Paris and whitening powder are placed on a metallic tray. The tray is kept on letter type frame and fixed tightly, which results in an impression on the plaster of Paris mixture. A thin rubber sheet is cut into the required size. The rubber sheet is spread over the impression of plaster of Paris and pressed to the frame with the help of a hand press.The frame (entire set) is heated for a specific time so that the rubber penetrates in the letter impression. Finally, the rubber impression is cleaned and pasted to a wooden or metal handle with the help of synthetic adhesive. A rubber cushion piece is also used to hold the rubber firmly to the handle. The profiled plant has a minimum capacity of 15,000 units of rubber stamps per annum and this is on the basis of 312 working days in a year.The demand of this product is increasing day by day and this has resulted in a small number of entrepreneurs generally becoming involved in manufacturing these products locally. The customer base for rubber stamps, among others, includes government offices, colleges, schools, banks, private companies and small shops in semi- urban and urban areas.

  1. MAKING OFFICE GLUE

This profile envisages the establishment of a plant that will manufacture office glue based on the capacity of 500 liters per day. The simplest glue is that made from a paste of flour and water.Put plain white flour and water into a bowl depending on how much glue you need.Mix the flour and water together until a smooth paste is achieved. It should not be too thick or too drippyUse it soon after creating it. It can be used to stick paper together.The demand for office glue is very high in the paper products industry, schools, offices, and craft projects.

  1. MAKING PENCILS

A pencil is a writing implement or art medium constructed of a narrow, solid pigment core inside a protective casing. The case provides an external scaffold to protect the structural integrity of the core, and also prevents the pigment from accidentally staining the hand during use. Pencils are widely used in the country in fields like education, carpentry, and artillery work among others, hence creating a big demand for them.The production capacity is estimated at 6,000 dozens of pencils per day.Raw MaterialsThe most important ingredient in a pencil is the graphite, which most people continue to call lead, which is a method of combining graphite with clay and wax or other chemicals. The cedar usually arrives at the factory already dried, stained, and waxed to prevent warping.Modern pencils are made industrially by mixing finely ground graphite and clay powders, adding water, forming long spaghetti-like strings, and firing them in a kiln. The resulting strings are dipped in oil or molten wax, which seeps into the tiny holes of the material, resulting in smoother writing.A juniper or incense-cedar plank with several long parallel grooves is cut to fashion a “slat,” and the graphite/clay strings are inserted into the grooves. Another grooved plank is glued on top, and the whole assembly is then cut into individual pencils, which are then varnished or painted. Afterwards people can then add personal things like pencil grips and eraser toppers & Labels.Pencils are widely used in the country in almost all fields such as Education, Carpentry and Artillery among others; hence creating a big demand for them.

  1. MAKING COLOURED WAX CRAYONS

Used as educational aid for drawings and sketches, coloured wax crayons are in great demand now, especially with current policy reforms in the education sector. They are normally used by children and artists, although they can be used by professionals, especially in business presentations, etc. A plant for making coloured wax crayons can be set up anywhere and does not require much in terms of expertise. This makes the project suitable for both rural and urban folks and will cost US$2,720 with capacity of 59,998 boxes annually, estimated revenues US$ 59,998per year with a net profit margin of 45%.The process consists of melting wax with the appropriate dye/ pigment. Filler is added to the melted wax and cast in required shapes and sizes. Finally, the crayons are wrapped and packed in cardboard boxes. The envisaged plant would have a minimum capacity of 192.3 boxes (1 gross per box) per day. This is on the basis of 312 working days in a year and single 8-hour daily work shifts.With the growing education base both in urban and rural areas, the use of coloured wax crayons have shot up in the last few years. Therefore, there is ready market and for this, educational institutions including nurseries, vocational colleges like Art academies, should be targeted. Supply should also be made to bookshops and other stationery shops.

  1. MAKING DISINFECTANT FLUIDS

A disinfectant is basically an agent, which destroys pathogenic organisms. A good disinfectant should also be a deodorant possessing good shelf qualities and it should be effective against a host of microorganisms. The total project cost is US$ 5,710, with production capacity of 50,000kgs per year with estimated revenue of US$ 250,068 annually with a net profit margin of 7%.The manufacture of black fluid disinfectants involves saponification of fatty oils. Soft soap is prepared by adding a boiling solution of caustic soda (33 %) to a mixture of fatty oils and molten rosin. The soft soap thus obtained is dissolved in hot water and the creosote and cresol are added. The fluid thus obtained is dark brown or black in colour. To manufacture white fluid disinfectants, casein is dissolved in water and a homogenous solution is made.Borax is added to this casein solution and stirred properly, which is then filtered and the requisite amounts of HBTA and cresol and creosote are added. Subsequently, homogenization is done in shearing colloid mill. The profiled plant has a minimum capacity of 50 tonnes per annum. It is assumed that there are 312 working days in a year.The product has a good market both in rural and urban areas. Thanks to the growing awareness, the people are using disinfectants as a preventive measure. Supply to hotels, restaurants, public and private offices, supermarket chains, stores, etc. would help in capturing a portion of the market.

  1. MAKING RUBBER MOULDED PRODUCTS

This business idea is for making rubber molded products. Rubber molded products are mostly used in automobile and assembling units. Molded rubber products find extensive use in railways, automobile, and bicycles and also in many industrial and domestic appliances. The business idea aims at production of 1,300 kgs of rubber products per month. The revenue potential is estimated at US$ 78,000 per year with a net profit margin of 42% and a payback period of 2 years. The total capital investment for the project is US$ 15,390.The profiled plant has a minimum capacity of 36,000 kgs of rubber products per annum when operating a single shift of eight hours a day, 300 days per annum.Technology and Process DescriptionNatural rubber latex is compounded with zinc oxide, anti-oxidants, paraffin wax, satiric acid, china clay, needle oil, ammonium chloride, in a rubber mixing mill. This mixture is extruded as slabs or other forms of rubber sheeting and then fed into moulds in measured quantities to the compression moulding press. These are cured by steam from a boiler.

  1. MAKING OF READY MADE GARMENTS – JEANS

The business of readymade garments is increasing day by day due to changes of fashions in human life. In the RMG sector Jean pants are showing good growth in local and export market. There are a number of branded ready-made garments manufacturing Units in Uganda. These days several companies are into the business of making jeans pants and also supplementary items like buttons and zips.The production Capacity projects at least at 312,000 Garments per annum will be produced.The manufacturing process depends on skills of the workers. Required cloth to be cut into required sizes and design as per the measurements of the latest designs. Then the required lining, button stitching and zip are added to the semi-finished fabric and finished garments are ready for packing and marketing.Scale of Investment, Capital Investment RequirementsThe total project investment cost of the project is estimated at USD 1,191 for the first year of project operation generating a revenue potential of USD 4,680,000.

  1. MAKING RUBBER ERASERS

An eraser or rubber is an article of stationery that is used for removing pencil and sometimes pen writings. Erasers have a rubbery consistency and are often white or pink, although modern materials allow them to be made in any color. Many pencils are equipped with an eraser on one end. Typical erasers are made from synthetic rubber, but more expensive or specialized erasers can also contain vinyl, plastic, or gum-like materials. Other cheaper erasers can be made out of synthetic soy-based gum.Used by school and college going students, erasers are used in addition to the common pencil erasers and some special type of erasers such as typewriter print erasers, ink erasers, etc., which are used in offices and other establishments. The project cost is US$ 3,060 producing 624,000 units annually giving estimated revenue of US $ 174,720 per year generating an annual profit of US$ 9,941.The demand for rubber erasers is closely linked with the growth of education and industrial establishments. With the increasing number of schools, colleges, educational institutions and offices, the market for erasers is poised for growth. Hence, there exists scope for new units to tap the market.

  1. MAKING EXERCISE BOOKS

This business idea is for manufacturing and marketing of exercise books. Exercise books are stationary items required for schools, offices and other purposes. Their market structure and demand is high since they are used by all school pupils from primary to senior four. They are sold in stationary shops, markets, whole sale shops, retail shops and even on the streets.Technology and process DescriptionManufacturing of exercise books involves use of Double Side Disc Ruling Machine size 915 mm Hand Feed with motor and starter, Paper and Board Cutting Machine hand operated, and power driven Cutting width 990 mm with mortar and starter, Wire Stitching Machine power operated with motor and starter capacity 25mm, Press 460*610mm, Offset Printing Machine complete with accessories & electrical. The production process involves ruling of lines on the paper in red & blue ink, folding of paper, cutting of paper, cutting of outer cover, printing of outer cover, folding of the outer cover & stitching of cover and pages, Inspection and packing.There is ready market throughout the country as more and more children go to school. The UPE programme has boosted the numbers.

  1. MAKING DESIGNER COTTON BAGS

Cotton bags are environmentally friendly products and can be a perfect replacement for polythene and plastic bags. The business profile is targeted towards production of 32,760 bags in the first year of operation with an initial investment fixed capital totaling to US$5,150 & estimated revenue of US$144,144 in the first year of project operation. The project is also expected to yield a net profit of 44%.The production process involves cutting different sizes of cotton cloth pieces and then stretching them on a stretching machine. The stretched pieces are tailored into different sizes and designs using a sewing machine. Where it is necessary to include company labels and designs, they can be sewn or just printed to add value to the products.The market is very easy to explore as the government is trying to ban the use of polythene bags.

  1. MAKING SCOURING POWDER

Scouring powder is a widely used household product. It is used in cleaning of metallic and ceramic products such as: tiles, toilet bawls, bathtubs & rinsing sinks etc.The production process involves the mixing of baking soda, salt, and borax powder in the right quantities and then the mixture is stored in an air tight container. Production capacity of 99,840kgms of scouring powder in the first year of operation and a total annual revenue of US$53,914can be realized when a total operating cost of US$32,319 is injected into the project. The net profit margin is 40% and the pay back is 1 year and 3 monthsInvestment Scale, Capital Requirements and EquipmentThe market exists widely in urban areas and the product can easily be supplied to supermarkets, wholesale and retail shops. Big producers such as: Mukwano Industries Ltd and Unilever Uganda Ltd may affect production costs and Price of new entrants as they produce at relatively low costs since they enjoy the economies of large scale production.

  1. MAKING PAPER ENVELOPES

Paper envelopes are stationery products that can easily be marketed as the users and consumers are very many such as government organizations, schools, courier organizations and individual consumers.The establishment of this project requires total operating costs of US$122, 412, generating revenue of US$ 312,000 in the first year of operation. The net profit margin is 61%.A paper cutting machine is used to cut different paper pieces to sizes as wanted by the operator for the type and size of envelopes to be produced. Binding glue is then applied to the cut sides of the paper and later they are joined together. Labeling can be done thereafter. The envelopes are then packed ready for distribution.Stationery products have a high demand by many institutions such as: schools, Government bodies, Stationery shops, NGOS and individual buyers.

  1. MAKING SERVIETTES

A serviette is a small piece of table linen that is used to wipe the mouth and to cover the lap in order to protect clothing when eating. Made out of light absorbent material, napkins are soft to absorb sweat and clean the mouth. The market is constituted by individual consumers, hospitals, restaurants, homes and hotels among others. The business idea aims at production of 2,600 packets of serviettes per month which translates into 31,200 packets annually. The revenue potential is estimated at 11,180 dollars per month, translating into 134,160 dollars per year. The total capital investment for the project is 3,635 dollars. The net profit margin is estimated at 29% with a payback period of 3 months.The Market cuts across Individual consumers, hospitals, restaurants, homes and hotels among others. However, there are many competitors thus the need for exploiting the export market.

  1. SETTING UP A BEAUTY SALOON

This business idea is aimed at setting up a Barber’s shop. The idea is premised on making different hair styles and haircuts for both males and females. The business has a good market demand due to the changing fashion of hair trends among Ugandans especially the youths. The revenue potential is estimated at US$ 1,560 per month which translates into US$ 18,720 per year. The total project cost is US$ 12,639 annually. The net profit margin is estimated at 36% and the payback period is 4 months.Depending on the customer’s desired style or service being sought for.The business has a great market demand in both rural and urban areas throughout the year and a higher demand during festive seasons.

  1. MAKING PLASTIC ROPES

A rope is a bundle of flexible fibers twisted or braided together to increase its overall length and tensile strength. Ropes may be used for hunting, carrying, lifting, and climbing dates back to prehistoric times.The capital investment required is US$ 13,178 generating TR of US $ 468,000 per year with an annual profit level of US $102,052. However, the payback period is estimated at 2 months.The demand for plastic ropes is very high especially in the fishing, building and construction, & farming industry. Plastic ropes may also be exported to neighboring countries.

  1. RECYCLING PLASTICS

This business idea is premised on production of 36,400 plastic products per month which translates into 436,800 products per year. The revenue potential is estimated at US $ 21,331 per month which translates into US $ 255,975 per year. The project cost is US $ 11,028.Net profit is estimated at 72%. Payback is 3 months.The demand for this idea is high due to the growing demand for Plastic products.The production process involves cleaning waste plastic, sorting plastics according to their grades, cutting to small pieces, extruding or crushing the plastics to get required sizes of granules. Chemicals are mixed with the crushed plastic to reinstate its originality.The mixture is then put into a boiler, melted before transfer into the injection machine that sends it to the molding machine. The finished product is removed from the molds, taken for trimming and packed.There is a growing demand for Plastic products across the country. Plastic products are also sold to the neighboring countries such as: Rwanda, Burundi and Congo. Crushed materials of plastics can also be sold to other big companies in form of raw materials.

  1. BOLTS AND NUTS

A bolt is a cylindrical piece of metal that fastens objects together while nut is a hexagonal or square piece with a threaded hole at the centre. Nuts and bolts have a high market demand in the industrial sector. The business idea aims at production of 2,600 kilograms of bolts and nuts per month. The revenue potential is estimated at US$ 241,800 per year with a sales margin of 10%. The total capital investment for the project is US$ 19,113.The envisaged plant will have a capacity of 100 kilograms of bolts and nuts per day when operating a single shift of eight hours a day for 300 days within a year.The head of the bolt is formed after feeding steel rod into a double stroke cold header machine. Later, using a bolt head trimmer, the bolt is machined to square or hexagonal shape and the threads are cut on a thread-rolling machine. For nuts, steel rods are fed into an automatic nut forking machine and the nuts in a semi-finished form are then fed into a tapping machine for internal threading.

  1. LEATHER PURSES

Real leather purses are made out of animal hides, fish skins. It is a garget for keeping money and other documents. It is commonly known as money purse wallet simply because people use it to keep in their money in the pockets of the handbags.The production capacity per day is 500 pieces of leather purses and monthly production is about 13,000 purses, which translates into an annual production of 156,000 pieces of Leather purses/wallets. The Price per leather wallet is US$ 3.5 and this means US$ 1,750 gross revenue per day hence monthly gross revenue US$ 45,500 which translates into annual gross revenue of US$ 54600.Technology and Process of ProductionThis business idea involves the use of strap cutting machine, stitching machine and working tools. The process involves the strap cutting, stitching, dying and designing the product as well as fixing fasteners and punching zips.It is projected that leather purses have a ready market in Uganda and East African countries because of their high quality despite the competition with bark cloth purses which are not durable.

  1. MANUFACTURING SPRAY PAINTING

Spray painting is a technique where a device sprays a coating (paint, ink, vanish) through the air onto a surface. It leaves the surface uniform and bright, and above all, gives the product an elegant look. It protects the metal from rusting and makes it weather proof. The business idea aims at creation of 1,560 job works per annum with persons spraying cars. The revenue potential is estimated at US$ 24,700 per month, translating into US$ 234,000 per year with a sales profit of $ 23,446 the total capital investment for the project is US$ 3,434.The profiled project has a minimum capacity of 1,560 job works per annum.Technology and Production ProcessThe equipment used includes: an Air Compressor, a Spray Gun and an HVLP Paint Sprayer and other equipments. The raw materials are paint hardener and thinner. Paint is poured in the spraying gun and sprayed uniformly with the help of a compressor.Apart from being used in the normal construction procedures, this technique can be employed for painting steel furniture, two wheelers, three wheelers and tractors. This is most suitable in places where automobiles and tractors are aplenty.

  1. MAKING PRINTED SHOPPING BAGS

Shopping bags or carrying bags are made from LD/LLDPE plastic, which are used by traders and business houses with their firm names printed in multi -colours using off set printers. This project involves capital of US$153,638 which in return brings in gross profits of US$112,320 with a profit margin of US$ 23,030 per annum. The bags are not only convenient, but are also a means of advertising and sales promotion. What is proposed here is to set up plant to make printed shopping bags, which are environmentally friendly since they can be recycled.

  1. COTTON MOSQUITO NETS

This profile envisages the establishment of a plant that will manufacture Cotton mosquito nets based on the production capacity of 450 nets per day. Mosquito nets are a natural alternative to toxic chemical sprays as a method of protection against mosquitoes, moths, sand flies and other insects. The 100% cotton muslin netting provides an enhanced sleeping environment due to its natural fibres and is superior to nylon or polyester mosquito nets. It also allows for a safe and comfortable night’s sleep.The manufacturing process of making mosquito nets goes through cutting the fabric/material according to the required size and design, which is then followed by sewing.

  1. SHOE REPAIRING

Shoes are important accessories put on by all categories of people, from babies, children and adults. This can be a viable venture because nobody wants to move with worn-out, torn, cut, or broken shoes. This project cost US$ 1030 working on about 436800 repairs annually and yielding annual revenues estimated at US $ 13104.The process of repairing shoes is not out straight because depending on the extent of damage on the shoes. These could be broken heels and worn out soles, stitching, faded leather, loose straps or buttons or buckles or fasteners etc.These determine what to be followed when doing repairs. The capacity 300 shoes per month and the technology involved is locally invented and therefore very affordable.4. A production month is assumed to have 26 days.New Shoes are quite expensive and with our terrain and broken walk ways, shoes get damaged quite often and thus need to repair them. These clinics therefore are often jammed with customers.

  1. MAKING MOSQUITO COIL

Mosquito coil is mosquito repelling incense usually shaped into a spiral; and typically made from a dried paste of pyrethrum powder. The coil is usually held at the center of the spiral, suspending it in the air, or wedged by two pieces of fireproof nettings to allow continuous smoldering. Burning usually begins at the outer end of the spiral and progresses slowly toward the centre of the spiral, producing a mosquito-repellent smoke. A typical mosquito coil can measure around 15 cm in diameter and lasts up to 8 hours. Mosquito coils are widely used in Asia, Africa, and South America. The Production capacity is 1404000 boxes per year bringing estimated revenue of US$ 82240 annually having invested US$ 6340There is good market potential because mosquitoes are a menace and malaria prevalence is quite high. A mosquito coil requires no electricity and is affordable in rural areas.

  1. MAKING ACRYLIC SHEETS

Acrylic sheet are used in manufacturing of scales, set square stencils, transparent covers of instruments, neon and fancy lighting signboards, fancy tables, storage boxes, floppy diskette, shelves for audio cassettes and other novelty items. They have good weather resistance with highly durable optical clarity, high strength-to-weight ratio, good dimensional stability, good thermo-formability, etc. it costs US$ 15950 with a capacity 31200kg annually and estimated revenues are US$ 433056 per annumIn manufacturing process, a mixture of regenerated and virgin methyl methacrylate monomer is used to affect economy of operation. To obtain the regenerated polymer, the acrylic scrap is heated with certain chemicals to about 4000- 4500 C in a mild steel distillation still placed on an open fire or a furnace and fitted with a condenser and collecting flask. The heating operation results in cracking polymetyl methacrylate into crude methyl methacrylate monomer, which, after vaporizing, gets condensed and is collected in a tank, is redistilled to obtain the pure regenerated monomer.

  1. MAKING RUBBER BALLONS

The proposed Business Idea is to set up a plant for making and marketing of rubber balloons. Balloons are colorful rubber items produced in different sizes, patterns, designs, and shapes. Rubber balloons are play materials for children of all age groups and are also used for decorative purposes. They can be marketed through retail outlets, Stationary Shops, Fancy Stores and Gift Shops. This business idea is premised on production of 46800kgs per month which translates into 3900kgs per annum. The revenue potential is estimated at US$120058 per month translating into US$1,440,698 per annum with a sales margin of 5% and a total investment requirement is US$ 9856 for the first year of project operation.The latex is prepared, compounded, dipped and the film is dried and beading made with the help of moulds, through dipping and vulcanizing, the latex is stripped off, which gives the finished product; whereby a packet of 100 units of rubber balloons in different colours and sizes is ready for dispatchRubber balloons have a steady demand in the market since they are used in all occasions especially for decorations.Raw materials (Latex Rubber) can be imported from countries like Ghana and Liberia while equipment can be imported from India and China.

  1. MAKING SPINDLE TAPES

Spindle tapes are mainly used in textile industries where spindles do run at a very high speed with minimum vibrations. Perfect spindle tapes are ideal for cotton, woolen, worsted & synthetic fiber spinning.The Project cost is US$42,006 bringing revenue estimates of US$139,994 from production capacity of 700128 rolls annually.These tapes exhibit, Permanent anti-static behavior, are energy saving, high resistance to abrasion and easy to join. With increased focus on increasing local textile output, and the advent of institutions like Nytil and phoenix textiles plus the successful accessing of foreign markets especially through new trade policies, the demand for spindle tapes is also increasing.The main production process consists of yarn preparation, and weaving. Yarn, nylon or cotton obtained in the form of cones from spinning mills is transferred into weaver’s beam using the warping machine and bobbins using the pin winding machine. The beaver’s beam is mounted on the multi- station power loom which constitutes warp.Bobbins are fed into the power loom through shuttles and this constitutes weft. Tape is woven by the interlacing of weft and warp. This is done mechanically by the power loom. After the tape is made, it is inspected, measured and rolled by the automatic tape rolling machine. The plant at the start of production has a minimum output of 700,000 meters each year. This is equal to 14,000 rolls each of 50 meters length, and working 26 days in a monthSpindle tapes have great market in the textile sector. Therefore, supply should be made to those industries, which deal in textile production. Potential for export exists in the long run especially with the advent of the AGOA act which promotes the export of textile materials to the USA. However, with the growth of the local textile industry, there is market locally for the tapes.

  1. REXENE WORKS (BICYCLE CARRIER SEATS)

This business idea is for the production and marketing of Rexene products, Rexene finds a wide application ranging from being used as seat covers to covering material. Rexene works include: bicycle carrier seats that are used in transportation of people. As Rexene products are cost effective, flexible and long lasting, there is a good demand for Rexene products that is untapped. The production capacity is estimated at 140 seats per day, total operating costs are estimated at US$ 142,827 per year and revenue estimates at US$ 213988 per year.After creating patterns, Rexene is put along with a suitable cloth lining stitched along with the needed fittings like, sisal roll plywood sponge and glue etc. The Rexene material can also be used for making two-wheeler seats covers, using the same machines.

  1. SYNTHETIC GEM CUTTING AND POLISHING

This business idea is for cutting and polishing synthetic gem. . Synthetic gems are widely used in preparation of imitation jewelry and also in decorative jewelry, fancy articles, mirrors, slip-ons, ready-made garments and bitenge. The business idea aims at production of 5,000 units per month which translates into 60,000 units annually. The revenue potential is estimated at $US 10,055 per month, translating into $ 120,660 per year with a sales margin of 15%. The total capital investment for the project is $ 6,860.Technology and Production ProcessThe Tools and Equipments used include: a slicing machine, a performing machine, faceting machine, tools and other items and office furniture. The raw materials are cutting plates and synthetic gems.The rough gem crystal is cut on a thin steel plate and is fed with real diamond dust mixed with water. The work done in cutting the rough gem crystal gives deep horizontal and vertical cuts on the rough gem which are chiseled and hammered out to get a fine gem.Due to its fragile nature, it breaks into rough coned pieces. The rough pieces are mounted with a pitch and shell on the edge of bamboo stick, which is pressed against rough carborundum wheels. Finally, proper facing and polishing of rough-cut pieces is done by using grinding lap made of gun metal, copper, lead, etc.Synthetic gems are widely used in preparation of imitation jewelry, decorative/fancy articles, mirrors, slip-on and ready-made garments. Apart from domestic market, synthetic gems can also be exported.

  1. MAKING CLEANING POWDER

This business idea is for making cleaning powder. The cleaning powder, manufactured in different qualities and grades, is mainly used for cleaning stainless steel utensils, glassware, ceramic ware and flooring etc. In addition to households, the bulk users of cleaning powders are hotels, canteens and commercial organizations.The business idea aims at production of 15,600 kgs of cleaning powder annually. The revenue potential is estimated at US$ 255,840per year with a net profit margin of 19% and a payback period of 4 months. The total capital investment for the project is US$ 9,250.Soda ash and acid slurry are mixed in required proportion and left for an hour. Subsequently, this is mixed with calcite powder, fragrance and grounded to fine powder and packed for marketing.

  1. MAKING TOOTHPOWDER

This business idea is for the production and marketing of toothpowder. Tooth powder is healthy for teeth and gums and will leave your mouth feeling super clean and your breath smelling good. Toothpaste simply adds binder agents and water, turning the powder into a paste that has a cleaner feeling and more easily coats the teeth. The TR is estimated at US$62,400per year with a net profit of 51% and a payback period of 2 years and 5 months. The total investment cost of US$15,555per year.Combine three tablespoons of baking soda, one tablespoon salt, and four drops of clove oil in glass or metal bowl. Use a spoon to mix well, mashing mixture against the sides of the bowl to ensure that oil is well distributed. To use powder, place a teaspoonful in the palm of your hand and pick up with a moistened toothbrush and Store powder in small, air-tight jar.Tooth powder is used in our daily life irrespective of age group. Dental care awareness is increasing all the people’s demand for the paste and powder including the rural masses. As a result, it has a good growing market. It can be supplied to supermarket chains, retail/grocery shops and clinics. This product is stocked almost in all shops throughout the country.

  1. KNITTING OF WOOLEN KNITWEAR

Woolen knitted products are highly demanded. The business idea is aimed at establishing a woolen kitting project with a capital investment cost of US$ 18,834, producing an average of 60 woolen knitwear products per day totaling to US$ 18,720 pieces fetching a revenue of US$ 121,680 when sold in the first year of operation. The operating costs are US$ 104,342.The production process involves winding yarn and then knitted in different fashions as the operator desires. The product is combined together by a sewing machine and then packed.

  1. DECORATION OF GLASS WARES

This project is for manufacturing and marketing decorated glassware. In order to upgrade the quality of the daily-use glassware items like tea sets, dinner sets, and lampshades different designs are put on the glassware to make it more attractive. They have a wide market because they are household items in almost every family in both rural and urban areas.They are used in places like hotels, offices, Restaurants, and homes. The business idea is based on production of 26,000decorated glasses per month, which translates into 312,000glasses per annum.The revenue potential is estimated at US$14,300 per month, translating into US$171,600 per annum with a net profit margin of 23% and a payback period of 1 year and 4 months. Total investment requirements are US$ 24,110 for the first one year of project operation.

  1. MAKING BRASS WARE (FLOWER VASES)

Flower vases are used in offices, homes, churches, hotels restaurants and reception halls. Vases can be made from a number of materials including cement, ceramics and glass.The business idea is for the production and marketing of flower vases. The production capacity is estimated at producing flower vases 80 per day with the total investment estimated at a cost of US$368. Cement is mixed into large empty buckets, clay and water are added and mixed together and the mix should not be thick. Painting oil is taken and rubbed into the mold, making sure that you cover the entire inside of the mold; this will make it a lot easier to remove the cement from the mold. The next step is to add cement to the mold, only filling it half way. Spread evenly into the mold, and then place the small flower pot directly in the middle of the mold bucket; this will help to set the shape of the flower pot. Then allow your mold to dry. This will probably take several hours. It will help if you can set the mold in the sun to allow it to harden.Once the cement is hard you can them remove it from the mold. Make sure that it is completely dry before you remove it. Then paint the pot afterwards; two coats of paint are more desirable, allow the first coat to dry then add the second coat. Once the paint is dry you can then add your dirt and start planting your flowers.

  1. MAKING PLASTIC BOTTLE CAPS

This business profile aims at setting up a plant that manufactures plastic bottle caps. Bottle caps, or closures, are used to seal the openings of bottles of many types. They can be small circular pieces of metal, usually steel, with plastic backings, and for plastic bottles a plastic cap is used instead. A bottle cap is typically colorfully decorated with the logo of the brand of beverage.To make plastic bottle caps, chemists and chemical engineers must do the following on an industrial scale:

  1. MAKING BATHROOM SANDALS

This venture is for making of Bathroom sandals. Their market structure is wide because they are used by all people in the society. Their demand prospect is high due to the continuous increase in income of people and improved life styles.The business idea is premised on production of 12,012 pairs of sandals per month which translates into 144,144 pairs per year. The revenue potential is estimated at US$278,198 per year, with a net profit margin of 34% and a payback period of 4 months. This project Investment is US$11,638.The process involves cutting cellular rubber sheets into required shapes & sizes and ready-made straps are fixed to the cut rubber sheets depending on the size and colour.

  1. MAKING RUBBER ADHESIVE

This profile envisages the establishment of a plant that will make Rubber Cement. Rubber cement is an adhesive made from elastic polymers mixed in a solvent such as acetone and hexane to keep them fluid enough to be used. This makes it part of the class of drying adhesives: as the solvents quickly evaporate, the “rubber” portion remains behind, forming a strong yet flexible bond. Often a small percentage of alcohol is added to the mix.The total Capital Investment cost to start this project is estimated at USD13,610. The predicted annual revenue is USD 673,920, with a net profit of 23% and a payback of 2 months.The process to make rubber cement is relatively simple. After the rubber is broken down into smaller pieces, it is mixed with the hexane-or heptane-based solvent and then various sizes of containers are filled with the liquid. Most equipment is automated.

  1. MOBILE FUEL DISTRIBUTION

Fuel is a commodity that is used by almost every household. The need to take services near to the people especially in rural and semi urban areas by selling fuel especially kerosene can be a good profitable venture as most people in rural areas buy fuel at relatively high Prices.The business idea target is to reduce on the costs incurred by many middle men businesses in the rural and semi urban areas which are reflected in form of Price, therefore, it will entail selling at relatively lower Price.The project is expected to yield annual revenue of US$436,800, with a net profit margin12% and a payback period of 5 months.

  1. DECORATION OF CERAMIC WARE

Ceramic wares are precious products that have a high demand by many users. This project idea has been developed basing on the need to explore the abundant market that exists in the country as most of the ceramic ware is imported. The estimated fixed capital is 42,680US$, with operating costs of 100,041US$, and an estimated revenue of 125,424US$ in the first year of operation.The process of decorating ceramic ware takes majorly two processes namely;Plastic decoration form and painting form.In plastic form, ceramic decoration is accomplished while the clay is pliable. This form includes the physical shaping of the object itself, incising, impressing, embossing, or ornamentation (ceramic flower application).The painting form of ceramic decoration pertains to the surface coloring and includes slip painting, under glaze, glaze, and over glaze types. This type of decoration changes the surface of the ware both eye and sense touch.The market for ceramic wares readily exists in the country since most of the products are household products.

  1. MAKING WIRE NAILS

This business idea is for manufacturing and marketing of wire nails. The nails consist of hard drawn bright mild steel wire with a head, which helps in driving the nail inside. They are made in various sizes. Wire nails are used for roofing, fastening in carpentry and woodwork, fencing, etc. With the rise in construction activities, both commercial and private, the demand for wire nails is bound to increase. Setting up a plant to make wire nails would thus meet this demand. This business idea is premised on manufacturing 769 kilograms of three inch wire nails per day which translates into 239,928 kgms of wire nails per annum. The revenue potential is estimated at US$55,583 per month translating into US$ 667,000 per annum with a sales margin of 33% and total investment requirement of US$ 71,300 for the first year of project operation.The plant at the onset of production has a minimum capacity of 20 tons of nails each month. As a bigger segment of the market is captured, output can be increased.The manufacturing technology involves feeding steel wire in the form of coil into a wire nail-forming machine. At first, cold heading forms the head and then the point takes shape. The nails are tumbled in a tumbling barrel with sawdust or similar materials to remove burrs. The finished nails are weighed and packed for marketing.The market for wire nails is high throughout the year both in rural and urban areas.

  1. MANUFACTURING LEATHER BELTS

This business idea is for production and marketing of leather belts. Real leather belts are one accessory of apparel made of cowhides or other animal skin. It is a flexible band worn around the waist. A belt supports trousers or other articles of apparel and it serves for style and decoration. Their market structure is high since they are of good quality and they are used by almost all people with trousers and others.The business idea is premised on three hundred working days single shift of 8 hours per day the unit is designed to have production of 1,000 belts per day which translates into 312,000 leather belts per year. The revenue potential is estimated at US$197,600 per month translation into US$2,371,200 per year with a sales margin of 27%with total capital investment requirement of US$67,660 and operational cost of 1,868,893 for the first year of project Operation.This project involves use of strap cutting machine, stitching machine, Riveting, punching machine and working tools. The production process involves strap cutting, stitching, riveting, coloring/dying, pressing designs, fixing fasteners/buckles and punching.It is projected that leather belts have a wider market both internally and externally because of their good quality.

  1. MAKING CARD BOARD CARTONS FROM RECYCLED CARDBOARD

This business idea is for making card board cartons from recycled cardboard. Cardboard boxes (cartons) are industrially prefabricated boxes, primarily used for packaging goods and materials. This box uses regular cardboard that usually gets thrown away. It makes a sturdy box for storing small things; you can basically make it any size you like. They have the inherent advantages of being light in weight, easy to fabricate and store. Cardboard boxes are used for packing TVs, Fridges, and bulky things like soap, toothpastes and garments. The market potential covers the entire packaging industry. The business idea aims at production of 62,400 boxes annually. The revenue potential is estimated at $ 90,355 per year with a sales margin of 28%. The total capital investment for the project is $ 9,614.The process description involves, deciding the size and dimensions of your box,(drawing and cutting), gluing the pieces together, sanding the pieces to see if they are even, let the pieces dry, join them all and the product is ready for use. Generally, boxes are prepared to customer specifications and the boxes/cartons can be prepared indifferent sizes, designs and colors

  1. MAKING CARBON PAPER

This business idea is for production and marketing of carbon paper. Carbon paper is paper coated on one side with a layer of a loosely bound dry ink or pigmented coating, usually bound with wax. It is used for making one or more copies simultaneously with the creation of an original document. The total investment requirement is USD1,620 with an operational cost of USD428,157 per year, with TRs estimated at US$ 561,600 per year and production capacity estimated at 4 cartons per day, each carton with 100 pieces.The process involves preparation of coating mix, coating on the paper surface, and cutting it into sizes for the market.Carbon papers have a steady market. Carbon papers are used in banks, offices, micro-finance institutions, educational institutions therefore there is a huge potential for carbon paper.

  1. MANUFACTURING OF NAIL POLISH

Nail polish is a cosmetic product used by the majority of women in Uganda. It has got market both in rural and urban areas of the country.This project idea was developed on the basis of using the simplest technology in the manufacturing of nail polish with an estimated fixed capital of 4,850 US$, and operating costs of 175,817US$ used to produce 11,856 liters of nail polish to realize 330,439US$ of revenue in the first year of operation.The production technology is very complex and may involve the use of robots, but recently a home made nail polish can be manufactured using a much simpler technology. Here the primary film former called nitrocellulose is mixed with a shimmer or metallic pearl and this may create a good shade if applied but care has to be taken by first applying it on the nails to test its quality.The market for cosmetics is readily available country wide and for successful implementation, it is recommended that products are distributed to supermarkets, salons and cosmetic shops that can easily increase sales.

  1. KING COTTON KNITTED WEARS

This business idea is for making cotton knitted wears. Cotton knitted would serve a big section of low income communities. Cotton knitted outwears such as pullovers, slipovers and children suits etc. are substitutes for woolen garments which are expensive. They have a relatively high demand in middle class and low income people areas. The business idea is premised on production of 2,600 pieces per month which translates into 31,200 pieces per Year. The revenue potential is estimated at US$ 13,000 per month which translates into US$ 156,000 per year with a sales margin of 10%. Total Investment requirement is US$3,588.53.Cotton knitted cloth in various designs and colors combination is purchased from the knitting units. The cloth is spread on the cutting table and required size of garments is cut. These cut pieces are first stitched with lock stitching sewing machines and then over locked. The stitched garments are pressed and then packed for marketing.Their market potential is high because there is readily available market all over the country and for export to the neighboring countries.

  1. BONE CHINA

Bone China porcelain products are decorative products that are used by a range of consumers especially hotels, recreation centers, events management enterprises, office and home decoration enterprises etc.The targeted output for the project is 39,936 pieces of high quality bone china porcelain products produced annually requiring an estimated fixed capital of US$ 43,602, operating costs of US$ 89,548, realizing estimated revenue of US$ 143,770, in the first year of operation. The projected net profit margin is at 38% and having a payback period of 3 years.The market for bone China porcelain exists in the country with major consumers such as: supermarkets, restaurants, wholesale shops and retail shops etc.

  1. MAKING NATURAL RUBBER ADHESIVES

The demand for Adhesives is very high in the Paper products industry, Schools, Offices and Craft projects.This profile envisages the establishment of a plant that will manufacture Adhesives from Natural Rubber based on the capacity of 500 liters per day. An adhesive, or glue, is a mixture in a liquid or semi-liquid state that adheres or bonds items together.The venture is estimated to yield an annual revenue of US$780,000, with net profit margin 19% and payback period of 2 months.Adhesives cure (harden) by evaporating a solvent (Most adhesives cure at room temperature) or by exposing them to an elevated temperature. The rubber compositions are packed together by molding them into thin coatings between a release film and a porous substrate to allow curing. The resultant product has highly desirable bonding and release.

  1. MAKING PAINT BRUSHES AND BRISTLE BRUSHES

There are many types of paint brushes where by some are made from stiff or soft hairs, which be either natural hairs or synthetic fibres. Soft brushes are ideal for thin paint which spreads easily and for detailed work as they form a sharp point which allows for precision painting.However on the other hand, Bristle Brushes are superbly hand crafted out of the finest quality pure white Chungking bristle hair.Plant CapacityThe profiled project envisages production of 100 brushes a day. The revenue potential is estimated at US$124,800 annually; the total capital investment for the project is US$ 2,772.The net profit margin for this idea is 54% and a payback period of 3 months.Raw fibres, bristles or hair are opened and separated in a spiking machine. They are then dressed and bundled according to their thickness and lengths. MS sheets are cut using a shearing machine and pressed to make ferrules. Ferrules are filled with bristles and dipped in vulcanizing rubber solution from the bottom side to properly soak the roots of the bristles. Wooden handles are placed in an electric hot air baking oven to ensure proper setting of the bristles under controlled temperature after fixing ferrules, the handle is nailed. The brushes are finally inspected and packed.

  1. MAKING HAND MADE PAPER

This Business Idea is about the manufacturing of paper from agro-waste and cotton waste. It is popularly known as hand paper because the production process is labour oriented. Paper and paper products are of great value to mankind in modern times. Paper is a basic means or medium of communication, and of great use in dissemination, capture, and storage of information. This is an ideal project because the demand is immense and all paper used in this country is imported.Secondly, the paper produced is cheap and the raw materials are readily available locally. Thirdly it could be located in rural areas where the raw materials are in plenty, and where the end users are found instead of transporting it long distances.The project requires estimated fixed capital of US$ 12,300 and operating costs of US$ 325,635 generating revenue of US$ 499,200. This venture is estimated to yield a net profit margin of 35% and a payback period of 3 months.This process produces paper between 150 to 600 grams and about one to two tons could be produced every day. Waste paper as well as grass, jute, rice straw and other agro-wastes are made into pulp by cutting them into small pieces that easily dissolve in water and turn into a paste form which is the pulp. This is then refined and colour and chemicals are added. A wet sheet is formed on the mould and is transferred to felt. The cylinder moulded paper is dried and polished over a roller and the paper produced is taken in form of sheets.As far as paper is concerned, any amount or tonnage that is produced would find market. Currently all sorts of paper in this country are imported. Thus, the potential is inexhaustible. Secondly, this is a project which would easily be located where the consumers are since the major input raw materials are everywhere.

  1. REFINING OF USED LUBRICATING OIL

This business idea is for refining of used lubricating oil. Lubricating oil is extracted from crude petroleum by a process of distillation.It falls under the category of high value products and the demand for it keeps on growing. The market size is big as it is used for any machine or instruments to increase their efficiency and longevity; to reduce the wear and tear caused by friction. It can be refined to make it very close to original lubricating oil. The business idea is premised on production of 3,500 liters of refined lubricating oil per month which translates into 42,000 liters per year. The revenue potential is estimated at US$ 10,530 per month translating into US$ 126,360 per year with a profit margin of 20%. Total investment requirement is US$16,800 for the first year of the project.The used lubricating oil is collected in tanks. The oil is transferred to a dehydration tank through a pump and subsequently heated to separate water from oil. The moisture-free oil is transferred to a settling tank and is treated with concentrated sulfuric acid for impurities to settle down. The mixture is again heated under vacuum for 3-4 hours and the clear liquid is siphoned and additives are mixed to give desired properties.There is a high demand for lubricating oil compared to its supply both in urban and rural areas and this is because about two thirds of the lube oil is used by industry while the remaining one third goes for automobiles. And it is also used for blending in various types of like spindle oil, transformer oil, axle oil and hydraulic oil, etc.Raw materials like used lube oil, lime and additives can be got locally from Kilembe mines and can be imported from Libya while equipments like Absorber and Vacuum pump for distillation can be imported from China and Japan.

  1. MAKING POWER INVERTORS

The business idea is for making and marketing of Power Invertors. This business idea is premised on production of 15Invertors per month which translates into 180 Invertors per year. The revenue potential is estimated at US $ 9,000 per month which translates into US $ 108,000 per year. The project cost is US $ 108,165.There is an ever-increasing demand for Invertors due to power shortages and interruptions. The market for the invertors is within the country and spreads beyond our borders like Rwanda, Sudan and Congo.

  1. MAKING SPECTACLE FRAMES

This Business Idea is for manufacture and marketing of spectacle frames from plastic cellulose acetate sheets. They are mass consumption items and are used by those with eye sight problems and for protection from the sun. The project envisages producing 1,300 sets of spectacle frames per month on the basis of 8 hours per working day. This translates into 15,600 sets per annum. The revenue potential is estimated at US$ 546,000 per year with a net profit margin 14% and a payback period of 3 months. The total investment requirement for the venture US$ 17,510Spectacle frames are made in two parts that is; one is the front which holds the two glasses and the other is the two sides which are fitted on each of the front. Generally spectacle frames are specified by Eye size and Bridge size. Eye size is the one which decides the size of the glass which it holds while the bridge size is the distance between the two glasses.There are more people today wearing spectacles as a creative treasure and many more use sun glasses. Thus plastic frames which are trendy and fashionable have a ready market and their Prices are relatively low.

  1. MAKING LLDPE MAILING COVER / ENVELOPES

Linear low-density polyethylene (LLDPE) is a linear polymer, with short number of branches; it has a narrower molecular weight. LLDPE mailing covers and envelops are a good substitute for the conventional paper covers. Aesthetically designed and lightweight, these envelopes also save on postage charges and can be recycled, have excellent wear and tear resistance and are durable. A plant to make such products can be put up anywhere in Uganda, and it can cost US$78,055 with a production capacity of 50,000Kgs per year. The project is estimated to yield revenue of US$109,996, with a net profit of 29%.The LLDPE granules along with fillers and pacifiers are charged into the blown film extruder, to melt and are homogenized and blown vertically upwards through a die and taken up by rollers.The air bubble controls the width of the film. The bubble is cooled by a jet of air. The film is treated for better printability and wound over paper tubes. These rolls are printed and converted in the form of envelope by cutting and side sealing. The profiled plant has a minimum capacity of 50 tonnes per annum on the basis of 312 working days in a year.LLDPE mailing covers are used for sending documents, brochures, annual reports, magazines, shareholder certificates, etc., through post or couriers. Other features are that they are lightweight, high tear resistant, printable and economic as they can be easily protected from dust & rain, etc. which makes this product easily marketable.

  1. PRODUCTION OF ZINC SULPHATE

Zinc sulphate is a colorless crystalline, water-soluble chemical used to manufacture animal feeds, fertilizers and agricultural sprays. It also has applications in textile dyeing and printing, as a reagent in glues, in electro galvanizing paints, varnishes and in the manufacture of many zinc compounds. Zinc sulphate has a good market potential in rural areas and agriculture sector. The business idea aims at production of 3,900 kgs of zinc sulphate per month. The revenue potential is estimated at US$ 374,400 annually with a net profit margin of 9% with a payback period of 3 month.The total capital investment for the project is US $11,622.Zinc sulphate is manufactured by leaching zinc ash with dilute sulpuric acid. The leached solution is filtered to separate un-reacted zinc, which is reused along with the next charge. The filtrate is treated with potassium permanganate and zinc dust to precipitate impurities.It is then treated with nitro so beta-naphthol to remove cobalt. The excess of sulphuric acid is neutralized with zinc carbonate. The solution is filtered and evaporated. After evaporation, the thick solution is allowed to settle in a settling tank where crystals of zinc sulphate come out of the cooler. The crystals are separated from the mother liquor in a centrifuge and dried on belt drier. The mother liquor is re-circulated to the evaporator. The crystals are then packed and marketed.

  1. SILVER EXTRACTION FROM WASTES

Silver is a very precious and important metal extensively used in photography, X- ray films, jewelry, electrical materials, medicine, etc. In the modern era, silver extraction from waste material has caught the imagination of scientists and engineers. Today, silver is extracted from the waste solution of X-ray clinics, photographers, block makers, and offset printers. Project cost is US$4,800 with a production capacity of 45Kgs per annum and yielding estimated revenues of US$20,218 per year.The project is expected to yield a net profit of margin of 31% and payback of 2 years and 4 months.The silver extraction machine has simplified the process of drawing silver from waste. Firstly, the silver concentration is checked on site with the silver estimation paper in grams per liters. Based on the silver estimation, purchase rates are fixed. The waste solution is first filled in the machine, the moment the machine is switched on, and the silver present in the solution gets deposited on the collecting blocks. In a stipulated time, the silver on the collecting blocks is obtained in pure form. Minimum capacity of 45 kg per annum working 26 days in a month.Silver can be sold anywhere at around $250 per kg. This is very promising as the raw materials could even be got for free as waste and the potential for exporting is high.

  1. BRICK MAKING FROM BLACK SOIL

This business idea is for production and marketing of bricks at a small scale investment. This business idea aims at production of 90,000 bricks per month, which translates into 1,080,000 bricks per year. The revenue potential is estimated at US$ 4,501 per month translating into US$54,007 per year with a sales margin of 10% and total investment capital is US$531,615 for the first year.It is analyzed that more than 3,000 bricks can be made per day depending on the equipments being used. The company can have a production capacity of more than 80,000 fired bricks and 10,000 unfired per month (Hoffman kilns can fire 80,000 bricks).Technology and Process DescriptionThe clay brick making technology is simple as it requires less skilled manpower and local materials mixture. The production process starts with the raw clay, preferably in a mix with 25-30% siliceous stone dust to reduce shrinkage. The clay is first ground and mixedWith the growing construction projects in urban and rural areas, the market base for the bricks is wide.

  1. MAKING LOW DUST CHALK

This business idea is for production and marketing of low dust chalk. Chalk is a soft compacted whitish calcite used as a writing aid in educational institutions. Low dust chalk reduces health hazards that result from excess chalk dust. The market structure for chalk cuts across academic institutions. It can be produced in a wide range of colours though white chalk is most preferred. The business idea aims at production of 3,900 boxes of chalk per month. The revenue potential is estimated at US$655,200per year with a sales margin of 10%; the total capital investment for the project is US$2,588.The profiled plant has a minimum capacity of 150 boxes of chalk per day and each box normally has 100 chalk pieces.To produce chalk, Plaster of Paris, French chalk and kaolin are mixed and made in a form of paste. The paste is cast in a suitable mould and dried. The dried material is then neatly packed for the market.

  1. MAKING POTTERY PRODUCTS

This business idea is for production and marketing of pottery products on a small scale investment. Pottery is the process of mixing clay with water; and shaping the mixture into pottery products/Pottery ware such as: pots, cups, plates, bowls, urns and candleholders. The market structure and demand for pottery products is generally wide because they are sold in places like curio shops, Art Kiosks and other places. They are used for various purposes such as: decorations, flower vases in workplaces, schools, lodges and households; while some products can be exported. The business idea aims at production of 104 pottery products per month which translates into 1,248 pottery products per year. The revenue potential is estimated at US$1,560 per month, translating into US$18,720 per year with a sales margin of 5% and total investment capital of US$9,141 for the first year of project operation. The technology used is relatively simple as it involves modeling red clay by use of hands, shaping tools and paint for decorating. Pottery is the process of mixing clay with water; and shaping the mixture into pottery wares. The modeled objects are then exposed to heat to dry then put in a kiln for burning to get the final product.The Market for pottery products is wide since they are multipurpose and the products can be sold for many different users.

  1. MAKING CLAY PIPES

The clay pipe industry was one of the earliest industry and today verified clay pipe is the most durable sewer product available, with long life, environmentally friendly, inert resistant to chemicals. Clay pipe is enjoying renewed interest among Civil Engineers and in municipalities that have an environmentally preferable purchasing policy and desire to incorporate sustainable practice. Clay pipes are used in laying drainage lines.These pipes have the special advantage of water absorption over other pipes and are produced in different shapes and sizes. The pipes are used in almost every building and construction, especially with the increased efficiency needs about sewerage disposal.The Revenue potential is estimated at US $43,290 per annum and production capacity of 23,400 from total investment of US$ 16,530.A manually operated clay pipe-making machine has been developed to enable easy use by semi- skilled potters in both urban and rural areas. These pipes are extruded from a mixture of lean and plastic clay of varying composition and fired at optimum firing temperature of 900- 950 degrees centigrade. The pipes are cooled and packed for the market. The proposed plant would have a minimum capacity of 75 pieces of pipes per day. This is on the basis of single daily 8-hour work shifts.Clay pipes are extensively used in the construction of drainage systems and have good market potential both in rural and urban areas. With the increase in the rate of constructions/buildings being put up, these pipes would find a ready market although they would face competition from some other local producers.

  1. BRASS & BRONZE ITEMS CASTINGS

Brass is an alloy of copper and zinc and the proportion of copper and zinc vary in this alloy depending upon requirements of the end product. Copper alloy with tin is known as gun metal or tin bronze. This has wide application in engineering, marine and automobile industry. Copper alloy with aluminium is known as aluminium bronze. It is also extensively used in manufacturing of decorative items for our daily use. It costs US$ 36,035 with a capacity of 15,000kg yielding estimated revenue of US $ 44,994 per year.The process of casting involves melting of the desired composition, preparation of mould cavity of sand, pouring the molten metal into mould cavity, knocking the mould after solidification and cooling of the castings, fitting and cleaning. The envisaged plant has a minimum m plant capacity of 15,000kg per annum but output can be increased tremendously when a grip on the market has been made.Brass and bronze items have very good market potential. The demand for use of brass and bronze art ware for decoration purposes in houses and offices has increased considerably. With increased industrialization in Uganda and an improvement in the quality of living, demand for the castings is bound to go up.

  1. CEMENT BRICK MAKING

Bricks are the basic requirement for any construction activity. They are prepared with the help of mud, clay or cement. Bricks made of cement are hallow and solid hence the great acceptance in the market because of their strength. For such an investment, one needs to have at least a small piece of land of about 1/2 Acre that can be either rented or owned. The idea envisaged is for production of 52,000 blocks per month and 624,000 per year. The revenue potential is estimated US $218,400 per year with total investment of US $12,011.Cement, sand, stone chips, stone dust and rods are mixed in suitable proportions along with water. This concrete mix is placed in metal or wood moulds. For reinforcement, wire mesh or rods are placed between successive layers of Concrete mix and compacted by vibration. The cast items are kept for a day to set. Then they are cured in a water tank for 15 days for complete setting.The demand for cement bricks is high in construction and housing companies.

  1. VIDEO FILMING

The moving images have almost replaced the conventional still photographs with people opting for films of social gatherings, religious, political and marriage functions, etc. The technological advancement has brought the video close to people, which has led to tremendous growth of video studios centers even in small towns and villages. The project cost isUS$199,632 and estimated annual revenue is US$ 468,000.The operating process involves simple steps. However, much depends upon the skill and acumen of the person handling the camera. Equipment; Video Recording Equipment is bought and put in place. Trained and specialized cameramen take the positions of manning this equipment. It is not easily quantifiable as this depends on a number of factors including the quality of the recordings being given out, the charges, etc.The use of electronic media has created a favorable climate for filming of all programmes and events among all sections of people in the society. This can be done to generate higher incomes even in rural areas. Advertising is needed for this project to quickly pick up demand.

  1. STARTING AN ONLINE MUSIC AND BOOKSTORE

This is about setting up an online music and book store. Books and music will be sold in hard or digital downloadable versions. Clients will access the store, place orders and make payments online. The project cost is estimated at US$ 7,500 per year with a working Capital of USD 18,956 covering about 2months operational cost. This yields total revenue of US$309,192 for the first year of operation. The business has a payback period of 2 years and a net profit margin of 24%. The Sales of the business grows gradually with the aid of repetitive buyers, referrals and other loyal customers. It is a business that does not need one to be present in any selling points thus you can operate from wherever you are. The investment can be scaled in accordance with the Capital available.There is a ready market of 120m English speaking people in the East African Community area. There is limited access to books across the region. This will be a good business opportunity that will exploit this gap. Orders can be placed and paid for online from any part of the region and fulfilled via post parcels.

  1. PROJECT FOR MAKING A BUSINESS CALL CENTRE

A business call centre is a place that has adequate telephone facilities, trained consultants, access to wide data bases, internet and other on-line support infrastructure so as to provide information and support to customers on a retail time basis. A customer today is able to place an order on the internet, do sale and purchase transactions, make payments, order for loans, and also download digitized products e.g. music. Setting up a call centre basically offers services like web integration, automatic call distribution, interactive voice response, predictive dialer, screen pop-up capabilities, and management features.TechnologyA call centre involves efficient integration and management of telecom and IT infrastructure. The essential components of a call centre are: premises, Leased circuit/communication connectivity, Data compression and decompression equipment, Computer telephony integration, Voice enabled PCs connected to high performance servers, Voice over the internet protocol, Predictive dialer, Interactive voice response and automatic call distributors.The market potential for call centers includes people and industries that require customer interface, private businessmen, airlines, financial services groups (banks, insurance firms, etc.), telecommunication service groups, ICT companies, Hospitals, hotels, tourism and travel firms, large manufacturing firms and other service industries.

  1. DRY CLEANER SERVICES

Dry cleaning uses non-water-based solvents to remove soil and stains from clothes. It involves cleaning of clothing and textiles using an organic solvent rather than water. The solvent used is typically Tetrachloroethylene (perchloroethylene), in the industry and “dry-cleaning fluid” by the public. Dry cleaning is necessary for cleaning items that would otherwise be damaged by water and soap or detergents. It is often used instead of hand washing delicate fabrics, which can be excessively laborious.From this scale of investment, it is estimated at least 100 garments will be cleansed in a day. The Fixed & Working Capital Investment Costs for the first year of operation is estimated at USD 26,913 and the TR is estimated at USD 73,000 for the first year of project operationThe payback for this idea 40% and the pay is at most 3 years and 6 months.A dry-cleaning machine is similar to a combination of a domestic washing machine, and clothes dryer. Garments are placed into a washing/extraction chamber (referred to as the basket, or drum), which is the core of the machine. The washing chamber contains a horizontal, perforated drum that rotates within an outer shell. The shell holds the solvent while the rotating drum holds the garment load. The basket capacity is between about 10 and 40 kg (20 to 80 lb). A typical wash cycle lasts for 8-15 minutes depending on the type of garments and degree of soilingThe demand for dry cleaning services is very high in the City and busy Urban & Trading Centres.

  1. REFRIGERATION SERVICE

Refrigeration is the process of removing heat from an enclosed space, or from a substance and moving it to a place where it is unobjectionable. The primary purpose of refrigeration is lowering the temperature of the enclosed space or substance and then maintaining that lower temperature. The profile is for setting up of a service center to do repairs on fridges, installation and maintenance of cold rooms, freezers and cold rooms, glass fronted display rooms and air conditioning. This would require specialization in installation and maintenance of air conditioning for transport, industry, offices and homes, cold rooms and refrigeration for transport. The total project would cost US$29,084 serving 624 units per annum. This would yield estimated revenue of US$ 24,336 annually. The payback period for this idea is 2years and the net profit is estimated at 3%.Servicing largely depends on the problems to be rectified. However, the process involves, inspecting the refrigerator, testing, replacing and rectifying the problem with minor repairs carried out on the spot at the customer’s place. Only in case of major repairs, the refrigerator has to be lugged to the nearest servicing Centre.The profiled service center has a minimum capacity of servicing 600 units per annum. With increased awareness on the role of refrigeration, the demand for the service center is bound to go up and more refrigerators will be servicedWith the growing base of consumers for refrigerators and coolers, there is latent demand to locally set up service centers in rural areas. Individuals will be buying new electrical appliances as government is putting a ban on used electrical appliances and when need for repairs come, people want perfect service providers.

  1. ROOF CLEANING SERVICES

The algae, dust, decomposed leaves and rust and smoke have made many roofs of houses to look “older than the actual age of the house” .They do accelerate the depreciation process of the buildings.This project idea is developed after realizing the opportunities that exist in the cleaning service sector. An estimated total operating cost amounting to 63,505US$, when injected in the project can realize revenue of 99,840US$ in the first year of operation. The estimated fixed capital is 11,432US$.The process of offering the service involves mixing cleaning detergents, water, scrubbing tools, dust blowers all combined to wash the roof top. Where painting is needed, spray paint can be sprayed on the top or if it is cleaning, then cleaning oil is applied after washing.The market for cleaning services widely exists as most of the houses these days are made of tiles plus colored iron sheet roofs that need repainting .Getting tenders for cleaning housing estates can be a very profitable venture as most suburbs of city are now turning into estates.

  1. SETTING UP A BAR

This business idea is for selling juice and alcoholic products. A bar is a place where drinks such as beers, soft drinks and some eats are offered for sale and they can be set up in any place especially trading centers which gather many people. Their market structure is wide because it’s throughout the year, but its peak is during public holidays and festive seasons hence increasing on their demand.The business idea is premised on selling of 5 crates of beers, 5 crates of soft drinks, 10 bottles of spirits and 5 boxes of water per day. The revenue potential is estimated at US$665 per day translating into US$207,480 per year with a net profit margin of 19% and total investment requirement is US$7,480for the first year of project operation.Technology and process Description:A bar has no complicated technology involved because it involves a working table, refrigerator, waiters and waitresses for serving the customers. Its process description involves purchasing crates of beers, crates of soft drinks and boxes of water in large quantities and selling them to customers in small quantities for immediate consumption.The market for this project is throughout the year mainly in busy trading centers, but its peak is during public holidays and festive seasons.

  1. VIDEO THEATRE

This business idea is for setting up a video theatre. A video theatre is a place where films and soccer matches are screened and viewers pay a certain fee for the service. Football matches, sports events, music shows and drams can also be shown in video theatre. The project cost is estimated at US$ 10,846 per year, operational capacity is estimated at100 people per day and revenue is estimated at US$40,180 per year.The chosen video tape is inserted into a video player which is connected to a television screen for showing films .The video player, decoder and television screen need an electrical supply in order to function.The market is readily available throughout the year and there is high demand during soccer seasons and holidays. Market for this business is mainly in urban centres and rural areas. The volume of patrons depends on the quality of service

  1. PORTABLE MEDICAL FIRST AID KITS

This profile looks at establishing a project that will make portable medical first aid kits. A first aid kit is a collection of supplies and equipment for use in giving first aid. First aid kits may be made up of different contents depending on who has assembled the kit and for what purpose. It may also vary by region due to varying advice or legislation between governments or organizations.This project will be in position of producing 2,600 medical first aid kits per month totaling to 31,200 per year and this generates 9,360,000 TRs per year. The total operating costs are US$7,652,400 for the first year of project operation generating annual revenue of US$9,360,000 with a net profit margin of 18%.First aid kits are made by assembling essential medical tools & equipment and the necessary medicines & drugs. Standard kits often come in durable plastic boxes, fabric pouches or in wall mounted cabinets. It is recommended that all kits are assembled in a clean, waterproof container to keep the contents safe and aseptic. Kits should also be checked regularly and restocked if any items are damaged or out of date.

  1. MAKING DISPOSABLE SYRINGES

A syringe is a simple piston pump consisting of a plunger that fits tightly in a tube. The plunger can be pulled and pushed along inside a cylindrical tube (the barrel), allowing the syringe to take in and expel a liquid or gas through an orifice at the open end of the tube. The open end of the syringe may be fitted with a hypodermic needle, a nozzle, or tubing to help direct the flow into and out of the barrel. This project capital investment requirement is US $ 18,600 generating a revenue potential of 343,200 per year. The net profit margin is 42% with a payback period of 5 months. Therefore, proposes to install entire equipments needed for an integrated disposable syringe plant.A disposable syringe may be simple and straight forward to look at, but it is an uneconomical and risky business to manufacture them without the necessary expertise. Hypodermic syringe production is strictly controlled by the United States government, specifically the Food and Drug Administration (FDA). They have compiled a list of specifications to which every manufacturer must comply. They perform inspections of each of these companies to ensure that they are following good manufacturing practices, handling complaints appropriately, and keeping adequate records related to design and production.Disposable syringes are widely used by Doctors and it is the way to go world over. With the increase in population in our country, requirement for these items is a must to curb transmission of diseases.

  1. PROJECT PROFILE ON MAKING SANITARY TOWELS

This business idea is for production and marketing of sanitary towels. A sanitary towel is an absorbent item worn by a woman while she is menstruating, recovering from vaginal surgery or any other situation where it is necessary to absorb a flow of blood from a woman’s vagina. The towels are made of cotton, which is extensively grown in Uganda. The product is a necessity. The total investment cost is estimated at US$ 47,749 per year, with a production capacity of 200 packets per day and revenue estimated at US$53,040 per year.The project is expected to yield a net profit of 48% and payback period of 7months.Cotton yarn is knitted into loose fabric tube. The loose fabric tube is cut into required pieces of absorbent cotton with the ends of the towels tied by thread. The towels are packed in printed polythene bags.Sanitary towels are on high demand in urban areas and are supplied in supermarkets, retail shops, hospitals, dispensaries, educational instructions and clinics. Demand has stretched to rural areas due to raising standards of living.

  1. FOREST LODGE

This business idea is for establishing a forest lodge. This business idea aims at accommodating 8 people per day. The revenue potential is estimated at US$ 31,171 per month translating into US$ 374,052 per year. The total investment capital is US$ 876,730 and a profit of US $ 1,049,688 per year. This idea is also expected to yield a net profit margin of 74% and to have a payback period of 6months.With the growing tourist potential in the country, the market is wide.  The projected areas include Mt.Elgon National park, Kibale conservation area, Kidepo valley national park, lake Mburo national park among others.

  1. HOLIDAY HOMES/ TIME SHARE APARTMENTS

This business idea is for constructing holiday homes/time share apartments. A holiday home apartment is a property with a particular form of ownership or use of rights. These kinds of apartments are for middle class families who want to reduce on their costs when they go for vacations.The apartments are normally paid for weekly or monthly and for that period one owns the apartment for the rest of his/ her life.The investor will help members of the apartments to form a home owners association which will collect the annual maintenance fees.The project is expected to be completed in 6 years. Revenue will be obtained starting from the 3rd year and profits will be accrued from the 4th year.The apartments will be sold to 52 persons per week throughout the years. There will be marketing of the properties via estate agents. The market will be sought on the start of phase 1 such that by the time you finish construction of phase 1, you would have sold1/2 of the block. The building project is expected to be completed within 72 months. All members will be advised to book in time such that they don’t collide. Members shall pay US $1000 as annual

  1. FOUR STAR BRANDED TOURIST HOTEL

A franchise shall be brought from one of the world’s best hotel for travelers known as Holiday Inn Express Hotel. Due to the growth and development of the tourism sector, there is a need to exploit such an opportunity by establishing such a hotel such that when tourists come to the country, they don’t miss what is in their home land. The franchiser will do the marketing of the hotel internationally hence making massive sales/ revenue.However, the franchisee will be expected to pay 10% of the sales made monthly. The franchise shall be bought with cutesy that whoever will be a customer of holiday inn express, shall also be a customer in the precedent host. The hotel shall be designed to the standards of the franchiser.Its market is determined by local individuals and the level of tourists who come for the holidays since Uganda is gifted by nature which attracts a number of foreigners to come and spent their holiday especially during winter and summer seasons. Also government officials, diplomats and foreign investors having meetings, conferences and workshops are part of the market.The business aims at having 70 rooms, consisting of single deluxe, double deluxe , family suits, 100 seat conference room, health club with sauna and gym, adults and kids swimming pool, 2 hotel shuttles, and parking for 30-40 vehicles.The revenue potential is estimated at US$2,646,000 with a net profit margin of 32% and an estimated payback period of 1 year and 1 month. The total capital investment for the project is US$ 3,011,725.

  1. MULTI-STOREY CAR PARK

The Multi-storey car park is one of the businesses that are still virgin in the country. A building of six levels accommodating approximately 80 spaces each on a site of approximately 0.5 acres located in one of the busy areas of the city centre would give the proposed park a wide catchment area. The park is planned to accommodate 500 vehicles with an occupancy rate of 80% per day.In its basic form the proposed car park building should be rectangular, with the footprint fully occupying the available site with two access ramps. The construction works to completion will take up to 12 months at a cost of US $2,280,000. On completion of construction the car park is estimated to generate a profit margin of 26% per annum and a payback period of 3 years 3 month.The design shall include both architectural and structural plans. The proposed Car-park architectural design will consider the customer carefully and provide a system that is simple and safe. It must however, be compatible with the locality and follow the guidelines established by the Local Planning Authority in terms of appearance and scale. These principles of use and planning tend to control the size of the car park, circulation facilities, and geometric design requirements. Parking yards, stairs and ramps are the major features in the design and the design must have all stairs rise to the full height of the building, giving access/exit to all levels including the roof. Interior ramps are most commonly used.Parking structures are subjected to the heavy and shifting loads of moving vehicles, and must bear the associated physical stresses. It is therefore imperative that expansion joints are used between sections not only for thermal expansion but to accommodate the flexing of the structure’s sections due to vehicle traffic.The site shall be cleared and leveled and left to settle ready for Construction will be started just like any other storey building taking into consideration the pressure it is bound to hold. It is proposed that frameless ‘structural’ glazing is used to the outer walls of the stair towers allowing daylight to flood in and clear views out. The solid walls and roof elements of the stairs are finished in smooth white render, enhancing the simple, clean lines.The market demand for parking yard is increasing every year due to the increased number of people purchasing vehicles as it has become a necessity rather than a luxury good.

  1. COMPOUND DESIGNING

Compound designing is an upcoming lucrative business in this era. Many developers are now interested in having well designed compounds that are be- fitting to their modern homesteads. This can be done for Universities, homes, Schools recreation centers, hospitals, camping sites, estates, hotels etc. and it is on very big demand and is highly marketable. Project cost is US$ 21,864 collecting revenue of US$49,920 annually form 312 compounds done per year. The project is estimated to yield a net profit margin of 56% and the payback period of 1year 9 month.The process starts as the premises near completion or when civil works are in the final stages. Leveling of the compound commences, black soil is mixed with composite and planting of grass, flower, trees, hedges etc. follows. Pavements, pavers and any arches are all put in place. Constant irrigation or watering is done to speed up growth. The placing of lights are identified and if procured are fixed.

  1. MAKING MANHOLE COVERS

A manhole cover is a removable plate forming the lid over the opening of a manhole, to prevent anyone from falling in and to keep unauthorized persons out. They usually feature “pick holes,” in which a hook handle is inserted to lift them.This project will produce 100 Manhole covers per day.Manhole covers are generally made using sand casting techniques.Construction is a booming sector; therefore, Manhole covers are on high demand especially in Drainage construction, Hotel sites, Road construction- side walk ways, and Telecommunication, Tunnels, Residential and Commercial buildings.

  1. MAKING CEMENT BASED PRODUCTS

The business idea is for the production of and marketing of cement based products. Cement Products are more on the move nowadays with the increase in housing activity. These may include but are not limited to: Cement Blocks, pavers, Bricks, Slabs, Culverts, Manhole covers, Sculptures or Statues to mention but a few. To have such an Investment one needs to have at least a small piece of land of about1/2 Acre that can be either rented or owned. The idea is premised on production of 26,000 blocks per month and 312,000 per year. The revenue potential is estimated US 218,400$per year with total investment of US $13215.5.Cement, sand, stone chips, stone dust and rods are mixed in suitable proportions along with water. This concrete mix is placed on metal or wooden moulds. For reinforcement, wire mesh or rods are placed between successive layers of Concrete mix and compacted by vibration. The cast items are kept for a day to set. They are then cured in water tank for 15 days for complete setting.Cement based products are used in construction of houses, schools and other public buildings and compounds.

  1. ESTABLISHING A METAL WORKSHOP

This is a business idea premised on setting up a metal workshop to fabricate different items for stocking for any buyer to pick at will and also to fabricate on order. The establishment of a modern workshop would require an estimated fixed capital of US$ 3,016 and operating costs of US$ 119,612 generating revenue of US$ 164,786 in the first year of operation. The workshop would be able to fabricate a variety of items as demand dictates and among others doors, windows, beds, chairs, and gates would be produced and stocked.The process involves the cutting of the plates, tube pipes, angle lines, hollow sections and bars for a particular item, assemble them into an article, weld and grind them. Then, filler paste is applied where necessary and thereafter the article is sprayed.The market potential is great because the construction industry is among the fastest growing sectors of our economy. There is a lot of demand for doors, gates, windows and burglar proofing etc.

  1. MAKING MOSAIC TERRAZO TILES

This business idea is for making mosaic terrazzo tiles. Mosaic floor tiles, are made of cement, sand and coloured stone chips. They are sold in attractive colours with a shining smooth surface. They are used extensively in making floors of residential as well as commercial blocks. Mosaic tiles are load bearing, termite proof, impermeable and easy to clean. The business idea aims at production of 62,400 square metres of tiles each year. The revenue potential is estimated at $343,200 per year with a sales margin of 10%. The total capital investment for the project is $ 3,630.The machinery used to produce mosaic terrazzo tiles includes: a Hydraulic pump, a Hydraulic accumulator, a grinding machine, a colour mixing machine, a Semi-polishing machine and tile moulds. The raw materials include: Portland cement, White cement, Marble powder and chips, Black and other colours and Sand and stone chips.Ratios of cement, coloured stone chips, sand and grey cement are well mixed. The mixture is then pressed and tiles are removed. They are then stacked in wooden racks for a day. The tiles are then soaked in water for 24 hours and cured for two weeks. Finally, the tiles are semi-polished and stacked for sale.The demand for mosaic terrazzo tiles is high mostly in urban centres especially construction companies. Hardware shops also form a big component of the market for these tiles.

  1. BUSINESS IDEA FOR ESTABLISHING A CAMPSITE

This business idea is for establishment of a Camp Site. This is setting up a site with facilities where Travelers and, or Tourists can camp and stay overnight or for some days. This involves acquiring land of more than an acre and secures it. Avail facilities like lavatories or washrooms, tents, laundry faculties, kitchen, a canteen or bar. There could be some dormitory facilities with some bedding provided. There must be mattresses and blankets for use when you hire the tents. A business center could be established or at least an Internet connection with a computer and possibly photo copying and Fax facilities. There could be some reliable transport that could be hired if need arise. The travelers or tourists come and stay and use the facilities while enroute to their next destination. All facilities are paid for at modest fees and thus the guest chooses what to use depending on his financial ability.Tourism is one of the fast growing sectors of the economy and the number of foreign guests is increasing steadily. There is demand for Camping facilities in different parts of the country. Places like Lake Mburo Sanctuary Reserve, Budadiri, Murchison Falls National Park, Queen Elizabeth National Park, and Kidepo National park are potential areas where this proposal can profitably start. Some of the existing facilities are very inadequate. A very aggressive marketing is required especially in the Tourist sector to cause awareness of the presence of these types of facilities at modest Prices.

  1. PROJECT PROFILE FOR A TENT HOUSE

This business idea is a service provider activity. It entails the hiring out of tents, utensils, plastic chairs and tables, tarpaulins mobile toilets stage mounting equipment etc. These items are stocked and hired to people organizing various functions such as weddings, birthday parties and public ceremonies. This is a business that is easy to run.The project requires estimated fixed capital of US$ 191,210 and operating costs of US$ 62,843 generating revenue of US$ 113,620, with a net profit margin of 40% and a payback period of 1 year 7months.The items are hired out and arrangements are such that they are delivered and tents are fixed for the functions and are picked after the functions. For success of this business cleanliness and time consciousness are taken very seriously. High ethical standards must be maintained to build a strong clientele and confidence.There is a lot of potential in this area as many functions are organized almost daily ranging from wedding ceremonies to funeral vigils, get-together to graduation parties etc. Once the service is impressive the business potential is unlimited. People always expect to receive the best.

  1. SECONDARY SCHOOL

Secondary schools are educational institutions for students in the age brackets ofb13-19 years. The school will be mixed for both girls and boys. It will cater for both day and boarding sections. It follows elementary or primary education, and is sometimes followed by university (tertiary) education. Secondary schools have in recent years increased in number according to the ministry of education and sports’ meaning the business is viable.The viability of this business is attributed to the increasing population of people in Uganda and many pupils are joining secondary schools thus a need for more secondary schools. The startup capital for this investment is US $ 1,670,000 and working capital is estimated at US$ 10,000 generating TR of US $ 691,200 in academic year in academic year 1, US$1,822,500 in academic year 3, US$ 2,902,500 in academic year 4 and US$ 2,902,500 in academic year 5 years discounted at the rate of 10%. However in academic year 1 there is expected revenues since it’s a year of planning and construction so no student is expected to join.The project’s net profit after tax is estimated at US$1,737,647 with a net profit margin is 21%.payback period of 2 years.

  1. SERVICING MOTOR VECHICLES

Motor vehicle service is a series of maintenance procedures carried out at a set time interval or after the vehicle has travelled a certain mileage. The service capacity is 8 cars per day; total capital investment is estimated at US$4,760 per year and estimated revenue is US$ 102,960 per year.Servicing ProcessClean-out is accomplished by applying suction near the top of the oil layer in the first compartment until it is completely removed, then proceeding directly to the sludge layer and removing the same. The intermediate water layer is left to act as a seal. The other chamber(s) should also be checked to ensure no significant quantity of oil or sludge is present.Serving a vehicle is mandatory to all owners of cars. The market is in both urban and rural areas since motor vehicles work in both areas. The quality of service would influence the market.

  1. PETROLEUM JELLY

Cosmetic products are widely used by many people in the country. Cosmetic products can attract a great customer base if they are of high quality. An estimated fixed cost of US$16,790 when injected into the project can yield estimated revenue of US$ 281,190 in the first year of operation. The payback period is approximately 6 months. Due to the increasing demand for the product in both rural and urban areas, there is market viability for the product. The idea envisages production of 60,000 units annually.The market for cosmetics widely exists both in urban and rural areas. Producing different brands may increase the sales revenue though there is stiff competition from other service providers such as: Movit products Ltd, Samona products ltd, Mwana mugimu, Sleeping baby and other imported cosmetics.

  1. CATERING IN THE OIL AND GAS SECTOR

The Oil and gas sector is a new and growing sector In Uganda with a high demand for quality catering services. Caterers supply food to oil workers located on oil fields which tend to be isolated away from normal towns. It will require mobility and portable services.Establishing a modern Catering service can prove to be a profitable business. The establishment of this project requires a total fixed cost of US$25,000 with a working capital of about US$40,000 – sufficient for two months operating costs. Generating revenue of 563,160 in the first year of operation. The project has a payback period of 1year and 3months with a 36% profit margin.The production process involves preparation of both Local and international Foods such as sandwich, Beef burgers, Fried chicken, chips, spaghetti, Pizza, Matooke, Rice, Yams, Cassava, Boiled Irish Potatoes, Posho with all Stews and Snacks such as Chips, Chicken, Fish among others and Beverages. The production will serve 400 clients daily for breakfast, Lunch and supper.A typical oil well team will consist of anywhere up to 200 – 400 people. This plan is based on serving two sites with a total of 400 people to feed. Capital requirements are estimated at US$25,000The market readily exists as the Oil sector has taken an expanding trend in Uganda with outside catering services being the most suitable arrangement for the supply of food to the workers, the business is a viable venture.

  1. SEASONING OF WOOD

This business idea is premised on production of 59,800 seasoned wood/timber per month which translates into 717,600 products per year. The revenue potential is estimated at US $70761 per month which translates into US $ 849,132per year. The project cost is US $ 50600.The two methods of seasoning timber are; air seasoning and kiln seasoning. But one can use the following steps; Chop the wood/ pole to the desired measurements, Stack the wood so it isn’t sitting directly on the ground or right up against a wall, Allow space between your stack and a wall to allow air to move, Ensure that the top of the wood is covered to allow rain to run off without soaking the wood, but the ends of the stack are uncovered to allow air to circulate and moisture to escape.The seasoned wood is used by various government departments including: Defense, Electricity and Railways as well as private individuals for making furniture, sleepers, interior furnishings, doors and window frames etc. Therefore, the market can be exploited. 

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